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WW1
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WW1

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  1. WW1 March to War

  2. Germany and the New Balance of Power • Germany – population, industry, military might had all increased • 1900 – Germany was out producing both Britain and France in steel • 41 million to 64 million by 1910 • New German power fueled leaderships need / want for more continental respect

  3. Bismarck’s Alliances • Humiliated the French in the Franco – Prussian War • Took Alsace – Lorraine • Alliance w/ Austria – Hungary (1879) • Italy joins later to form the Triple Alliance • 1887 – treaty signed with Russia

  4. William II • 1890 – Bismarck is forced to resign • William lets the “treaty of friendship” with Russia lapse • Large naval investment to challenge British naval superiority

  5. Triple Entente • 1894 – Franco – Russian Alliance • Britain abandons “splendid isolation” • 1904 – Entente Cordiale (Britain / France) • Russia joins in later • Moroccan crisis – attempt by Germany to test Anglo – French entente • 2 rivalries were formed • Any dispute between any two powers could result in war

  6. The Balkan Powder Keg • 1. ottoman empire had slowly been pulling out of the Balkan peninsula • 2. most of the peninsula spoke the Slavic Language (except Greece and Romania) • 3. Pan-Slavism – nationalist movement to unite all Slavic peoples • 4. 1878 – Congress of Berlin. Bismarck supports Serbian independence but respects AH’s right to “occupy and administer” Bosnia and Herzegovina • 5. Serbia = leader of Pan – Slavism • 6. 1908 – AH feeling threatened by Slavic nationalism annexes B-H • 7. Allowed Slavic Russia a chance to advance in the Balkans • 8. Russia / AH on a course to war

  7. Outbreak of War • June 28, 1914 • Slavic nationalist (Serbian) assassinates the heir to the AH throne • Event serves as the spark / catalyst for war

  8. WWI The War in the West

  9. The Schlieffen Plan • 2 front war for Germany • Alfred von Schlieffen • All out attack on France • Knock out France first • Then focus on Russia • Invade neutral Belgium • Britain declares war on Germany

  10. Stalemate • Schlieffen plan failed • Western front = trench warfare • Lasted the duration of the war • Untold casualities

  11. The Home Front • Total War • public rationing • Press censorship • Propaganda – support the war, hate the enemy • Men leave, women work • Emmeline Pankhurst – leader of the woman’s suffrage movement in Britain • 1918 - women over 30 receive right to vote

  12. All Quiet on the Western Front • Erich Maria Remarque • German veteran • Senseless slaughter and suffering

  13. WWI U.S. Involvement

  14. U.S. Involvement • “Make the world safe for democracy” • Declared war on Germany in the spring of 1917 • Actually began fighting in Europe in spring of 1918. • Fresh supplies and bodies were crucial to the allies • Supportive role • Minimal casualties • War had a greater impact on American domestic life than we had on the war. (i.e. draft, rationing, women going off to work in factories, great migration, more govt. agencies, etc…)

  15. WWI The End

  16. The End of World War I • Treaty of Brest – Litovsk • Americans arrive in the spring of 1918 • William II abdicates the throne • Nov. 11, 1918 armistice is signed ending the war

  17. 22 million dead

  18. 20 million wounded

  19. Devastation in Europe Due to WWI Before the War: Village of Esnes After the War: Village of Esnes

  20. Devastation in Europe Due to WWI Before the War: Hotel de la Princerie, Verdun After the War: Hotel de la Princerie, Verdun

  21. The 14 Points • Wilson – spokesman for a lasting peace • Included the following • 1. open diplomacy • 2. freedom of the seas • 3. Reduction of militaries • 4. return alsace – lorraine to France • 5. independent Poland • 6. national self determination • 7. “general association of nations” (League of Nations) • Wilson plans are undermined by French hatred

  22. French Premier George Clemenceau British Prime Minister David Lloyd George “The Big Four” Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando U.S. President Woodrow Wilson

  23. Paris Peace Conference • GB, Fr. And USA dominate meeting • Germany and A-H not allowed to attend • Russia didn’t come due to civil war

  24. Treaty of Versailles • Alsace – Lorraine returned to France • 13% of German territory lost • Colonies were given to GB, Fr. And Japan as mandates • Poland becomes independent / Polish Corridor • Military limitations placed on Germany • Rhine becomes a DMZ • War guilt clause – article 231 • Pay huge reparations • League of Nations

  25. Land was taken from Germany & given to Poland; Germany’s border with France was demilitarized to avoid a future invasion The Ottoman Empire was divided; Britain & France gained mandates in the Middle East Central Europe was redrawn to reduce the power of the Austro-Hungarian Empire New nations were created from territory taken from Russia (who left WWI early after the Bolshevik Revolution) Europe & Middle East Before & After World War I

  26. Impact • Unprecedented death and destruction • Old monarchies and social orders were dissolved • Man became less optimistic • What was the point of all this? • What did we achieve? • Rivalries, hate, tensions, imperialism still persisted….. • World War II on the horizon

  27. The Russian Revolution