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4-2 Quantum Theory. Planck’s Theory. Max Planck predicted accurately how the spectrum of radiation emitted by an object changes with temperature. Proposed that there is a fundamental restriction on the amounts of energy that an object emits or absorbs, called quantum. Means FIXED AMOUNTS.

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planck s theory
Planck’s Theory
  • Max Planck predicted accurately how the spectrum of radiation emitted by an object changes with temperature.
slide3
Proposed that there is a fundamental restriction on the amounts of energy that an object emits or absorbs, called quantum.
    • Means FIXED AMOUNTS
slide4
Completely contradicted the idea that energy can emit or absorb in any amount.
  • Related the Frequency of the radiation to the amount of energy.
  • E = h
  • Energy = Planck’s Constant x Frequency
slide5
Planck’s Constant (h) = 6.6262 x 10-34 J-s (Joule x second)
  • Energies absorbed or emitted by atoms are quantized, which means that their values are restricted to certain quantities. Energy is not continuous
example
Example
  • Imagine a car’s fundamental quantum of energy corresponds to a speed of 10 km/hr. If the car has 7 quanta of energy, it will have a speed of 70 km/hr. If the car has 9 quanta of energy, it will have a speed of 90 km/hr. This shows that a car can only move in multiples of 10 km/hr (in this case). Speeds such as 88 km/hr and 41 km/hr are impossible
slide8
Why can’t we see quantized energy around us?
    • Planck’s Constant is very small. The Quanta are too small for every day notice, but to a very small atom they make a big difference
the photoelectric effect
The Photoelectric Effect
  • In the photoelectric effect, electrons are ejected from the surface of a metal when light shines on it.
  • Einstein realized that Planck’s idea of energy quanta could explain this.
  • Said that Light consists of quanta of energy that behave like tiny particles, called PHOTONS
slide10
Red light will not cause electrons to flow in a sheet of sodium metal, no matter how long or bright the source is. Violet light will cause electrons to flow. Violet light has a greater frequency, and a greater amount of energy per photon
slide12
The frequency of light and the energy of the photon explains the effects of electromagnetic radiation.
  • X-rays contain high amounts of energy because of their frequency, while radio waves have low frequency and low energy.
dual nature of radiant energy
Dual Nature of Radiant Energy
  • Arthur Compton later demonstrated that photons can collide with electrons.
  • Photons behave like a particle that always travels at the speed of light.
  • E = mc2 =h