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THE Russian Revolution. Czar Nicholas II. Romanov Dynasty Autocracy- Type of government where the leader has total power In 1894, Nicholas II became Czar. RUSSIA’S TROUBLES. A naive and disconnected Czar Rapid industrialization Dissatisfied society Russia was politically unstable

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czar nicholas ii
Czar Nicholas II

Romanov Dynasty

Autocracy- Type of government where the leader has total power

In 1894, Nicholas II became Czar

russia s troubles
RUSSIA’S TROUBLES
  • A naive and disconnected Czar
  • Rapid industrialization
  • Dissatisfied society
  • Russia was politically unstable
  • Lost the Russo-Japanese War
the revolutionary movement
The Revolutionary Movement
  • Karl Marx-German Philosopher who believed in communism
  • Proletariat- Workers
  • Mensheviks (moderate)v. Bolsheviks (Radical)
  • Vladimir Lenin- Bolshevik leader
bloody sunday
Bloody Sunday
  • January 23,1905, at the Czar’s Winter Palace in St. Petersburg
  • 200,000 workers carried a petition asking for:
  • Better working conditions
  • More personal freedom
  • An elected national legislature
  • Significance: sparked a wave of strikes and violence across Russia
  • Duma created in October 1905
  • Russia’s first parliament
russia and wwi
Russia and WWI
  • Russia unprepared to handle military and economic costs of war
  • In 1915, Czar Nicholas went to war front and left Czarina Alexandra to run the government
  • Rasputin- A self-described holy man
  • Shortage of food, fuel
  • Prices inflated
  • Significance: The Czar and Czarina proved to be incapable of dealing with the problems in Russia
the march revolution
The March Revolution
  • In March 1917, women textile workers striking
  • Five days later, riots over shortage of bread and fuel
  • This general uprising forced Czar Nicholas to abdicate his throne
  • Leaders of Duma established a provisional government, headed by Alexander Kerensky
  • Soviets- local councils made up socialist revolutionaries competing for power
  • Lenin returns to Russia in April 1917
the bolshevik revolution
The Bolshevik Revolution
  • Stalin gains control of Petrograd Soviets
  • November 1917, Bolshevik Red Guards overthrow the provisional government
  • Bolsheviks in power meant:
  • Farmland was distributed to all peasants
  • Gave control of factories to the workers
  • Signed truce with Germany to stop all fighting
more trouble for russia
More Trouble for Russia
  • March 1918, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed, giving large parts of Russian territory to Germany and its allies
  • 1918-1920 Civil War rages in Russia
  • The White Army- comprised of different groups of people who all wanted to bring down the Bolsheviks
  • Civil war and the famine that followed resulted in 14 million deaths
russia after civil war
Russia After Civil War
  • Russian economy destroyed
  • March 1921, implements New Economic Policy
  • NEP allowed
  • Peasants to sell their surplus crops instead of giving them to the government
  • Allowed the government to keep control of major industries
  • Allowed some factories and farms to operate under private ownership
  • By 1928, Russia was back to producing as much as before WWI
political reforms
Political Reforms
  • Lenin organized Russia into self-governing republics that were under one central government
  • In 1922, Russia becomes the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
  • Bolsheviks rename themselves the Communist Party
  • In 1924, the Communist Party created their Constiution
  • Lenin established a dictatorship of the Communist Party not a dictatorship of the proletariat that Marx promoted
a new leader
A New Leader
  • In 1922, Lenin dies
  • Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin are competing to become head of the Communist Party
  • By 1928, Stalin is in total command of the Communist Party
  • In 1929, Trotsky is forced into exile and is no longer a threat