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### Multi-dimensional Sequential Pattern Mining

**Efficiency of PrefixSpan****Mining MD-Patterns****Dim-Seq****Seq-Dim****Pros & Cons of Algorithms****Conclusions****References (1)****References (2)****
**

Helen Pinto, Jiawei Han, Jian Pei, Ke Wang, Qiming Chen, Umeshwar Dayal

Outline

- Why multidimensional sequential pattern mining?
- Problem definition
- Algorithms
- Experimental results
- Conclusions

Why Sequential Pattern Mining?

- Sequential pattern mining: Finding time-related frequent patterns (frequent subsequences)
- Many data and applications are time-related
- Customer shopping patterns, telephone calling patterns
- E.g., first buy computer, then CD-ROMS, software, within 3 mos.
- Natural disasters (e.g., earthquake, hurricane)
- Disease and treatment
- Stock market fluctuation
- Weblog click stream analysis
- DNA sequence analysis

Motivating Example

- Sequential patterns are useful
- “free internet access buy package 1 upgrade to package 2”
- Marketing, product design & development
- Problems: lack of focus
- Various groups of customers may have different patterns
- MD-sequential pattern mining: integrate multi-dimensional analysis and sequential pattern mining

Sequences and Patterns

- Given a set of sequences, find the complete set of frequent subsequences

A sequence : < (ef) (ab) (df) c b >

A sequence database

Elementsitems within an

element are listed alphabetically

Given support thresholdmin_sup =2, <(ab)c> is a sequential pattern

A sequence : <(bd) c b (ac)>

Seq. ID

Sequence

Elements

10

<(bd)cb(ac)>

20

<(bf)(ce)b(fg)>

30

<(ah)(bf)abf>

40

<(be)(ce)d>

50

Sequential Pattern: BasicsA sequence database

Given support threshold min_sup =2, <(bd)cb> is a sequential pattern

MD Sequence Database

- P=(*,Chicago,*,
) matches tuple 20 and 30 - If support =2, P is a MD sequential pattern

Mining of MD Seq. Pat.

- Embedding MD information into sequences
- Using a uniform seq. pat. mining method
- Integration of seq. pat. mining and MD analysis method

UNISEQ

- Embed MD information into sequences

Mine the extended sequence database using sequential pattern mining methods

- No candidate sequence needs to be generated
- Projected databases keep shrinking
- Major cost of PrefixSpan: constructing projected databases
- Can be improved by bi-level projections

MD pattern

(*,Chicago,*)

(cust-grp,city,age-grp)

(cust-grp,city)

Cust-grp,*,age-grp)

(*,city,*)

(*,*,age-grp)

(cust-grp,*,*)

BUC processing

All

- First find MD-patterns
- E.g. (*,Chicago,*)
- Form projected sequence database
- <(bf)(ce)(fg)> and <(ah)abf> for (*,Chicago,*)
- Find seq. pat in projected database
- E.g. (*,Chicago,*,
)

- Find sequential patterns
- E.g.
- Form projected MD-database
- E.g. (Professional,Chicago,Young) and (Business,Chicago,Middle) for
- Mine MD-patterns
- E.g. (*,Chicago,*,
)

- Seq-Dim is efficient and scalable
- Fastest in most cases
- UniSeq is also efficient and scalable
- Fastest with low dimensionality
- Dim-Seq has poor scalability

- MD seq. pat. mining are interesting and useful
- Mining MD seq. pat. efficiently
- Uniseq, Dim-Seq, and Seq-Dim
- Future work
- Applications of sequential pattern mining

- R. Agrawal and R. Srikant. Fast algorithms for mining association rules. VLDB'94, pages 487-499.
- R. Agrawal and R. Srikant. Mining sequential patterns. ICDE'95, pages 3-14.
- C. Bettini, X. S. Wang, and S. Jajodia. Mining temporal relationships with multiple granularities in time sequences. Data Engineering Bulletin, 21:32-38, 1998.
- M. Garofalakis, R. Rastogi, and K. Shim. Spirit: Sequential pattern mining with regular expression constraints. VLDB'99, pages 223-234.
- J. Han, G. Dong, and Y. Yin. Efficient mining of partial periodic patterns in time series database. ICDE'99, pages 106-115.
- J. Han, J. Pei, B. Mortazavi-Asl, Q. Chen, U. Dayal, and M.-C. Hsu. FreeSpan: Frequent pattern-projected sequential pattern mining. KDD'00, pages 355-359.

- J. Han, J. Pei, and Y. Yin. Mining frequent patterns without candidate generation. SIGMOD'00, pages 1-12.
- H. Lu, J. Han, and L. Feng. Stock movement and n-dimensional intertransaction association rules. DMKD'98, pages 12:1-12:7.
- H. Mannila, H. Toivonen, and A. I. Verkamo. Discovery of frequent episodes in event sequences. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, 1:259-289, 1997.
- B. "Ozden, S. Ramaswamy, and A. Silberschatz. Cyclic association rules. ICDE'98, pages 412-421.
- J. Pei, J. Han, B. Mortazavi-Asl, H. Pinto, Q. Chen, U. Dayal, and M.-C. Hsu. PrefixSpan: Mining sequential patterns efficiently by prefix-projected pattern growth. ICDE'01, pages 215-224.
- R. Srikant and R. Agrawal. Mining sequential patterns: Generalizations and performance improvements. EDBT'96, pages 3-17.

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