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Multi-dimensional Sequential Pattern Mining. Helen Pinto, Jiawei Han, Jian Pei, Ke Wang, Qiming Chen, Umeshwar Dayal. Outline. Why multidimensional sequential pattern mining? Problem definition Algorithms Experimental results Conclusions. Why Sequential Pattern Mining?.

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multi dimensional sequential pattern mining

Multi-dimensional Sequential Pattern Mining

Helen Pinto, Jiawei Han, Jian Pei, Ke Wang, Qiming Chen, Umeshwar Dayal

  • Why multidimensional sequential pattern mining?
  • Problem definition
  • Algorithms
  • Experimental results
  • Conclusions
why sequential pattern mining
Why Sequential Pattern Mining?
  • Sequential pattern mining: Finding time-related frequent patterns (frequent subsequences)
  • Many data and applications are time-related
    • Customer shopping patterns, telephone calling patterns
      • E.g., first buy computer, then CD-ROMS, software, within 3 mos.
    • Natural disasters (e.g., earthquake, hurricane)
    • Disease and treatment
    • Stock market fluctuation
    • Weblog click stream analysis
    • DNA sequence analysis
motivating example
Motivating Example
  • Sequential patterns are useful
    • “free internet access  buy package 1  upgrade to package 2”
    • Marketing, product design & development
  • Problems: lack of focus
    • Various groups of customers may have different patterns
  • MD-sequential pattern mining: integrate multi-dimensional analysis and sequential pattern mining
sequences and patterns
Sequences and Patterns
  • Given a set of sequences, find the complete set of frequent subsequences

A sequence : < (ef) (ab) (df) c b >

A sequence database

Elementsitems within an

element are listed alphabetically

is a subsequence of

Given support thresholdmin_sup =2, <(ab)c> is a sequential pattern

sequential pattern basics
A sequence : <(bd) c b (ac)>

Seq. ID












Sequential Pattern: Basics

A sequence database

is a subsequence of

Given support threshold min_sup =2, <(bd)cb> is a sequential pattern

md sequence database
MD Sequence Database
  • P=(*,Chicago,*,) matches tuple 20 and 30
  • If support =2, P is a MD sequential pattern
mining of md seq pat
Mining of MD Seq. Pat.
  • Embedding MD information into sequences
    • Using a uniform seq. pat. mining method
  • Integration of seq. pat. mining and MD analysis method
  • Embed MD information into sequences

Mine the extended sequence database using sequential pattern mining methods

efficiency of prefixspan
Efficiency of PrefixSpan
  • No candidate sequence needs to be generated
  • Projected databases keep shrinking
  • Major cost of PrefixSpan: constructing projected databases
    • Can be improved by bi-level projections
mining md patterns
Mining MD-Patterns

MD pattern








BUC processing


dim seq
  • First find MD-patterns
    • E.g. (*,Chicago,*)
  • Form projected sequence database
    • <(bf)(ce)(fg)> and <(ah)abf> for (*,Chicago,*)
  • Find seq. pat in projected database
    • E.g. (*,Chicago,*,)
seq dim
  • Find sequential patterns
    • E.g.
  • Form projected MD-database
    • E.g. (Professional,Chicago,Young) and (Business,Chicago,Middle) for
  • Mine MD-patterns
    • E.g. (*,Chicago,*,)
pros cons of algorithms
Pros & Cons of Algorithms
  • Seq-Dim is efficient and scalable
    • Fastest in most cases
  • UniSeq is also efficient and scalable
    • Fastest with low dimensionality
  • Dim-Seq has poor scalability
  • MD seq. pat. mining are interesting and useful
  • Mining MD seq. pat. efficiently
    • Uniseq, Dim-Seq, and Seq-Dim
  • Future work
    • Applications of sequential pattern mining
references 1
References (1)
  • R. Agrawal and R. Srikant. Fast algorithms for mining association rules. VLDB'94, pages 487-499.
  • R. Agrawal and R. Srikant. Mining sequential patterns. ICDE'95, pages 3-14.
  • C. Bettini, X. S. Wang, and S. Jajodia. Mining temporal relationships with multiple granularities in time sequences. Data Engineering Bulletin, 21:32-38, 1998.
  • M. Garofalakis, R. Rastogi, and K. Shim. Spirit: Sequential pattern mining with regular expression constraints. VLDB'99, pages 223-234.
  • J. Han, G. Dong, and Y. Yin. Efficient mining of partial periodic patterns in time series database. ICDE'99, pages 106-115.
  • J. Han, J. Pei, B. Mortazavi-Asl, Q. Chen, U. Dayal, and M.-C. Hsu. FreeSpan: Frequent pattern-projected sequential pattern mining. KDD'00, pages 355-359.
references 2
References (2)
  • J. Han, J. Pei, and Y. Yin. Mining frequent patterns without candidate generation. SIGMOD'00, pages 1-12.
  • H. Lu, J. Han, and L. Feng. Stock movement and n-dimensional intertransaction association rules. DMKD'98, pages 12:1-12:7.
  • H. Mannila, H. Toivonen, and A. I. Verkamo. Discovery of frequent episodes in event sequences. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, 1:259-289, 1997.
  • B. "Ozden, S. Ramaswamy, and A. Silberschatz. Cyclic association rules. ICDE'98, pages 412-421.
  • J. Pei, J. Han, B. Mortazavi-Asl, H. Pinto, Q. Chen, U. Dayal, and M.-C. Hsu. PrefixSpan: Mining sequential patterns efficiently by prefix-projected pattern growth. ICDE'01, pages 215-224.
  • R. Srikant and R. Agrawal. Mining sequential patterns: Generalizations and performance improvements. EDBT'96, pages 3-17.