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## SPOC Automation a nd BECI- who are we?

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**SPOC Automation**and BECI- who are we? • Pump Focused VFD company • Specialists in Optimizing Pump Control • SPOC 15+ Years in business • BECI 16+ Years in business • Both Family Owned • SPOC Based in Trussville, AL • BECI – Based in Conway, AR**Efficiency using Automation VFDs**• “Power” Basics • AC Motor Basics • AFD Basics • Energy Savings Basics • Discrete Automation Advantages**POWER**Basics**The Basics**HP is the measurement of the work that the motor can perform. 33,000 ft/lbs per minute or 746 Watts 1 HP = Note: 5250 comes from (33,000 ft·lbf/min)/(2π rad/rev)**The Basics**Torque is: • directly proportional to HP • indirectly proportional to speed • related to current demand – so, the higher the torque, the higher the HP – the higher the current demand. To understand Horsepower and Torque better, we need to understand how a motor works……..**AC Motor**Basics**The Basics**Electric motors convert electrical energy to mechanical energy**The Basics**The motor stator is made up of a series of windings wound to create a series of magnetic poles when energized**The Basics**When 3 phase AC power is applied to the stator winding a rotating magnetic field is created.**The Basics**Induction causes Rotor rotation The rotor tries to align itself with the rotating magnetic field. With no losses, the rotor would rotate at the synchronous speed.**The Basics**An induction motor is basically a constant speed device because the stator field rotates based on the frequency of the AC power system Looking at the equation differently: what would happen to the speed of the AC Motor if the frequency to the stator changed?**The Basics**The Basics 300 10 Hz 900 30 Hz 1800 60 Hz**VFD**Basics**VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVES**How does a Variable Frequency Drive Work? THREE SECTIONS 1. CONVERTER - Transforms (Converts) AC Line Power to DC Voltage 2. DC FILTER - The DC Voltage is Cleaned 3. INVERTER - Tranforms (Inverts) the DC Voltage to Synthetic AC Voltage**DRIVE TERMS**Pulse Width Modulation (output) Definition - DC current is switched on and off quickly to appoximate an AC sine wave**Energy Savings**Basics**Energy savings**• 50HP Motor running full speed for a year…How much does it cost to run? • @ 10 Cents per kwh, about $30k**Typical Variable Torque Loads**• Most Pumps • Supply and Exhaust Fans • Aerators**This is THE $$$$**Equation!!! Variable Torque Application HP = K(Operating speed/nameplate speed)3 Max Volts 230/460/575 Variable Torque Constant HP V/Hz Ratio V/Hz Ratio Output Voltage V/Hz Ratio 0 Extended Frequency 60 Hz Frequency**Variable Torque Application**HP = K(Operating speed/nameplate speed)3 • Why is this considered to be THE $$$$ Equation? Energy Savings! • HP equals cube of the speed, so • ½ speed = (1/2) x (1/2) x (1/2) = 1/8 HP • ¼ speed = 1/64 HP • A 100HP motor at ½ speed requires 12.5 HP • HP is directly proportional to $**Savings Example-oversized fan**• If a zoo runs a 10HP Motor for 24 hours a day at full speed: • 10HP x (1)3 x 0.746 KW/HP = 7.46KW • 7.46KW x 24 hours = 179 KWhrs • If a zoo runs a 10HP motor for 24 hours a day at 3/4 speed: • 100HP x (3/4)3 x 0.746 KW/HP = 3.14 KW • 3.14 KW x 24 hours = 75.36 KWhrs • 58% Savings simply by slowing the fan down by 25%. • New Reduced airflow through fan is 75% of original**Savings Example--**• If a zoo runs a 100HP Pump for 12 hours a day at full speed: • 100HP x (1)3 x 0.746 KW/HP = 74.6KW • 74.6KW x 12 hours = 895 KWhrs • If a zoo runs a 100HP Pump for 24 hours a day at ½ speed: • 100HP x (1/2)3 x 0.746 KW/HP = 9.4 KW • 24 hour day: 9.4 KW x 24 hours = 225 KWhrs 75% energy savings to move the same amount of fluid**VFD “Myth Buster” #1**• Myth: VFD’s are rated VT and CT • Fact: VFD’s are rated based on over-current capabilites. Typically, drives are rated at • 110% overload for 1 minute, or • 150% overload for 1 minute.**AFD “Myth Buster” #2**• Myth: AFD’s are inefficient at low speeds. • Fact: The AFD is typically >96% efficient throughout the speed range. • The concern is the AC Motor: • It is self-cooled • The slower the motor is going, the less cooling from the fan • Most modern motors have specifications for what is allowed**AFD “Myth Buster” #3**• Myth: I’ll burn up motors if I connect more than one to an AFD • Fact: One of the biggest benefits of an AFD is that more than one motor can be controlled by one drive. All motors will receive the same voltage and frequency.**Automation VFD**Basics**Pump Automation**+ VFD Controls**Pump Automation**• Control process • Safety interlocks • Eliminate manual adjustments to hit targets • Variable Capacity • Flexibility for rate of flow or compression • Energy Savings +**Pump Automation**Easy, right? …..but we forgot a couple things**Pump Automation**+ VFD startup technician PLC startup technician**Pump Automation**PLC VFD Automation VFD PLC Technician SCADA**Typical Controls**• Branch of Electrical Contractor • Usually 1 or 2 techs • Exists to support contractor business • Dedicated Controls Company • Typically small company • Can do anything approach • Customized solutions**Automation VFD**……..It’s In There • Simple Operation • Operator Friendly Startup • Standard Product • Standard Support**Automation Drives**……..It’s In There • Reduce Electrical Costs • Reduce On-off Cycles • Eliminate Bypass Valves • Simplified Startup • Single Vendor responsibility • Easy System Troubleshooting**Automation Drives**• Typical savings $10-$15k installed cost advantage of traditional PLC based approach • Optimized for smaller systems with a few pumps or fans per system • Simple setpoint changes • Flow • Pressure • Temperature