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GETTING TO KNOW EACH OTHERS: Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore Week 12

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  1. GETTING TO KNOW EACH OTHERS:Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore Week 12 Matakuliah : V0052 Tahun : 2008

  2. Learning Outcomes On completion of this unit, the students should be able to explain the cultural characteristics of Asian countries; Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. Mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan karakteristik budaya negara-negara Asia; Indonesia, Malaysia dan Singapura. HO 0708

  3. Subjects ASIAN COUNTRIES: • Indonesia • Malaysia • Singapore HO 0708

  4. Week 12INDONESIA HO 0708

  5. Week 12Indonesia: Facts and Statistics • Location: South-eastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean • Capital: Jakarta • Population: 241,973,879 (July 2005 est.) • Ethnic Groups: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26% • Religions: Muslim 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% • Official Language: Bahasa Indonesia HO 0708

  6. Week 12Indonesia: Facts and Statistics • In Indonesia there are over 300 ethnic groups and 500 languages • In general, there are four broad ethnic groups: • The majority group (Malay origin) • Eurasians and people of Arab, India or Pakistani origin • Indigenous people (not of Malay origin) • Chinese • Indonesia is the 4th most-populous country in the world • Indonesian culture is part of the South-East Asian cultural tradition which is distinct from the dominant northern cultures of the region such as India and China HO 0708

  7. Week 12Society and Culture • In general, Indonesia is a collectivist culture which stresses deference and harmony • Indonesian society is complex and interdependent • There is strong loyalty to the extended family, respect for elders is usual (The importance of family) • There is a tradition of “Musyawarah Mufakat” (decision by consensus) and “Gotong Royong” (mutual assistance) • In business, it is important to spend time on social courtesies and establishing relationship before getting down to business. Face-to-face discussions are preferred, especially in early dealing HO 0708

  8. Week 12Society and Culture Diversity • Indonesia is a hugely diverse nation • Each province has its own language, ethnic make-up, religions and history. • Most people will define themselves locally before nationally. • Although Indonesia has the largest Muslim population in the world it also has a large number of  Christian Protestants, Catholics, Hindus and Buddhists. • As a result the national motto is  "Unity in Diversity", the language has been standardised and a national philisophy has been devised know as "Pancasila" which stresses universal justice for all Indonesians. HO 0708

  9. Week 12Society and Culture Hierarchy • As with most group orientated cultures, hierarchy plays a great role in Indonesian culture. • Hierarchical relationships are respected, emphaised and maintained. • Respect is usually shown to those with status, power, position, and age. • This can be seen in both the village and the office where the most senior is expected to make group decisions. • Superiors are often called "bapak" or "ibu", which means the equivalent of father or mother, sir or madam. • Although those higher up the hierarchy make decisions Indonesians are advocates of group discussion and consensus. This ties back to the idea of maintaing strong group cohesiveness and harmonious relationships. HO 0708

  10. Week 12Society and Culture Face • Due to the need to maintain group harmony the concept of 'face' is important to understand. • In Indonesia the concept is about avoiding the cause of shame ("malu"). • Consequently, people are very careful how they interact and speak. • Although a foreigner can not be expected to understand the nuances of the concept it is crucial to keep an eye on ones behaviour. HO 0708

  11. Week 12Society and Culture Face • One should never ridicule, shout at or offend anyone. Imperfections should always be hidden and addresses privately. Similarly blame should never be aimed at any individual/group publicly. • One manifestation of the concept of face/shame is that Indonesians communite quite indirectly, i.e. they would never wish to cause anyone shame by giving them a negative answer so would phrase it a way where you would be expected to realise what they truly want to say. • Bahasa Indonesian actually has 12 ways of saying "No" and several other ways of saying "Yes" when the actual meaning is "No" !! HO 0708

  12. Week 12Communication Styles • Indonesians are indirect communicators. This means they do not always say what they mean. • Generally speaking Indonesians speak quietly and with a subdued tone. Loud people would come across as slightly aggressive.  • Business is personal in Indonesia so spend time through communication to build a strong relationship. • Dealing with someone face-to-face is the only effective way of doing business. • Indonesians abhor confrontation due to the potential loss of face. To be polite, they may tell you what they think you want to hear. If you offend them, they will mask their feelings and maintain a veil of civility. If an Indonesian begins to avoid you or acts coldly towards you, there is a serious problem. HO 0708

  13. Week 12Language & Communication • Verbal Communication • Greetings • Names and Titles • Language • Indirect communication • Smiling and stress • Avoidance of bad news • Silences HO 0708

  14. Week 12Language & Communication • Non-Verbal Communication • Smiling replaces words • Eye-contact • Significance of some parts of the body • Posture • Physical contact • Some other points to note HO 0708

  15. Week 12Meeting & Greeting • Greetings can be rather formal as they are meant to show respect. • A handshake is the most common greeting accompanied with the word "Selamat". • Many Indonesians may give a slight bow or place their hands on their heart after shaking your hand. • If you are being introduced to several people, always start with the eldest or most senior person first. • Titles are important in Indonesia as they signify status. If you know of any titles ensure you use them in conjunction with the name. HO 0708

  16. Week 12Meeting & Greeting • Some Indonesians only have one name, although it is becoming more common for people to have a first name and a surname, especially in the middle class. • Many Indonesians, especially those from Java, may have had an extremely long name, which was shortened into a sort of nickname for everyday conversation. • There are several ethnic groups in Indonesia. Most have adopted Indonesian names over the years, while some retain the naming conventions of their ethnicity. HO 0708

  17. Week 12Gift Giving Etiquette Gift giving etiquette for the Chinese: • It is considered polite to verbally refuse a gift before accepting it. • This shows that the recipient is not greedy. • Items to avoid include scissors, knives or other cutting utensils as they indicate that you want to sever the relationship. • Elaborate wrapping is expected - gold and red and considered auspicious. • Gifts are not opened when received. HO 0708

  18. Week 12Gift Giving Etiquette Gift giving etiquette for ethnic Malays / Muslims: • In Islam alcohol is forbidden. Only give alcohol if you know the recipient will appreciate it. • Any food substance should be "halal" - things that are not halal include anything with alcoholic ingredients or anything with pork derivatives such as gelatine. • Halal meat means the animal has been slaughtered according to Islamic principles. • Offer gifts with the right hand only. • Gifts are not opened when received. HO 0708

  19. Week 12Gift Giving Etiquette Gift giving etiquette for ethnic Indians: • Offer gifts with the right hand only. • Wrap gifts in red, yellow or green paper or other bright colors as these bring good fortune. • Do not give leather products to a Hindu. • Do not give alcohol unless you are certain the recipient imbibes. • Gifts are not opened when received. . HO 0708

  20. Week 12Dining & Service Preferences • Dining Preferences • Most Indonesians seldom use a knife • Passing food with the left hand is not acceptable • Rice is a staple food, and is always the basis of an Indonesian meal • Sambal is the most common accompaniment with most meals • It is important to remember that Muslim Indonesians do not eat pork or any pork products • Balinese Hindus do not eat beef or any beef products • Muslims do not drink alcohol, and in fact, many Indonesians are quite unused to drinking alcohol HO 0708

  21. Week 12Dining & Service Preferences • Service Preferences • A very large percentage of Indonesians smoke • In Indonesian hotels and restaurants there is generally a large staff, and service is quick • Bathing is an important activity – at least 2x a day • Tipping is expected if there is no service charge. Taxi drivers and hotel staff expect small tips. HO 0708

  22. Week 12Dining Etiquette • Dining etiquette is generally relaxed but depends on the setting and context. The more formal the occasion the more formal the behaviour. • Wait to be shown to your place - as a guest you will have a specific position. • Food is often taken from a shared dish in the middle. You will be served the food and it would not be considered rude if you helped yourself after that. • If food is served buffet style then the guest is generally asked to help themselves first. It is considered polite that the guest insist others go before him/her but this would never happen. • In formal situations, men are served before women. • Wait to be invited to eat before you start. • A fork and spoon are often the only utensils at the place setting. Depending on the situation some people may use their hands. • Eat or pass food with your right hand only. .  HO 0708

  23. Week 12Business Meeting Etiquette • Initial meetings may be more about getting-to-know-you rather than business. Do not be surprised if business is not even discussed. • It is common for Indonesians to enter the meeting room according to rank. Although you do not have to do this, doing so would give a good impression. • Indonesians do not make hasty decisions because they might be viewed as not having given the matter sufficient consideration. Be prepared to exercise patience. • "Jam Karet" (rubber time) describes the Indonesian approach to time. Things are not rushed as the attitude is that everything has its time and place. Time does not bring money, good relations and harmony do. • If negotiating, avoid pressure tactics as they are likely to backfire. HO 0708

  24. Week 12 MALAYSIA HO 0708

  25. Week 12 Malaysia: Facts and Statistics • Location: Southeastern Asia. Shares borders with Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore and Brunei. • Capital: Kuala Lumpur • Climate: tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons • Population: 24,821,286 (July 2007 est.) • Ethnic Make-up: Malay 50.4%, Chinese 23.7%, indigenous 11%, Indian 7.1%, others 7.8% • Religions: Muslim 60.4%, Buddhist 19.2%, Christian 9.1%, Hindu 6.3%, Confucianism, Taoism, other traditional Chinese religions 2.6%, other or unknown 1.5%, none 0.8% • Government: constitutional monarchy HO 0708

  26. Week 12 Culture and Society A Multi-Cultural Society • Malaysia is a multi-cultural society. The main ethnic groups are the native Malays as well as large populations of Chinese, and Indians. • Families tend to socialise within their own ethnic group – all part of retaining their individual traditions and lifestyles. • Despite the ethnic differences there are commonalities culturally speaking. HO 0708

  27. Week 12 Culture and Society Group Orientation • The family is considered the centre of the social structure. As a result there is a great emphasis on unity, loyalty and respect for the elderly. • The family is the place where the individual can be guaranteed both emotional and financial support. When one member of the family suffers a financial setback, the rest of the family will contribute what they can to help out. HO 0708

  28. Week 12 Culture and Society The Concept of Face • Malays, Chinese and Indians all strive to maintain face and avoid shame both in public and private. Face is a personal concept that embraces qualities such as a good name, good character, and being held in esteem by one's peers. • Face is considered a commodity that can be given, lost, taken away, or earned. On top of this face also extends to the family, school, company, and even the nation itself. • The desire to maintain face makes Malaysians strive for harmonious relationships. HO 0708

  29. Week 12 Culture and Society The Concept of Face • Face can be lost by openly criticizing, insulting, or putting someone on the spot; doing something that brings shame to the group; challenging someone in authority, especially if this is done in public; showing anger at another person; refusing a request; not keeping a promise; or disagreeing with someone publicly. • Face can be saved by remaining calm and courteous; discussing errors or transgressions in private; speaking about problems without blaming anyone; using non-verbal communication to say "no"; and allowing the other person to get out of the situation with their pride intact. HO 0708

  30. Week 12Meeting & Greeting • Within the business context most Malaysian business people are culturally-savvy and internationally exposes. • Your experience may very well depend upon the ethnicity, age, sex and status of the person you are meeting. The best approach is always friendly yet formal. • Initial greetings should be formal and denote proper respect. • If in a team, introduce the most important person first. • Many Malays and Indians are uncomfortable shaking hands with a member of the opposite sex. HO 0708

  31. Week 12Meeting & Greeting • Foreign men should always wait for a Malaysian woman to extend her hand. Foreign women should also wait for a Malaysian man to extend his hand. • To demonstrate respect Chinese may look downwards rather than at the person they are meeting. • It is important that professional titles (professor, doctor, engineer) and honorific titles are used in business. Malays and Indians use titles with their first name while Chinese use titles with their surname.. HO 0708

  32. Week 12Meeting & Greeting Among all cultures, there is a general tendency to introduce: • The most important person to the lower ranking person. • The older person to the younger person. • Women to men. HO 0708

  33. Week 12Language & Communication • Verbal Communication • Bahasa Malaysia (Bahasa Melayu) is the national language • English is widely spoken especially in commerce and industry • Ethnic Chinese speak different Chinese dialects incl. Mandarin, Cantonese & Hakka • Tamil and Hindi are the main language of the Indians HO 0708

  34. Week 12Language & Communication • VERBAL COMMUNICATION • Names and form of address • Most names are derived from Arabic • Malay man is named Ahmed bin Ali  formally addressed as Encik (Mr/Sir) Ahmed • A woman’s name Kemala binti Rahman would be addressed as Miss Kemala • Is married to Mr. Ahmed, she could be addressed as Mrs. Kemala or Mrs. Kemala Ahmed • Titles are common and should be used if possible (Tunku/Tengku, Tan, Tan-Sri, Dato, Toh Puan, Puan Sri and Datin, Hajji or Hajjah) HO 0708

  35. Week 12Language & Communication • VERBAL COMMUNICATION • In Bahasa Malaysia there are several equivalents for “YOU” – indicate to be formal, informal, respectful or condescending • The concept “Face” is important for Malays. It is linked to self esteem, and this is depends on how one is perceived by others. Potential sources of “Loss of Face” include: • Public reprimands or criticism • Being object of jokes or ridicule (even in a friendly way) • Being singled out • Being the subject of a public disagreement HO 0708

  36. Week 12Language & Communication • NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION • Greetings: hand-shaking or bow slightly. To show respect, both hands are used when greeting people of higher status or older people • Public touching between sexes is uncommon • Among Malays and Indians it is very important to avoid touching the head as they believe it is sacred (because the soul or spirit resides there) • Showing the sole of the shoe or foot is disrespectful • It is very rude to cross one’s legs on most formal occasions • Left hand should not be used for eating, for passing things or for touching people HO 0708

  37. Week 12Language & Communication • NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION • It is impolite to clear the throat or to blow the nose in a very public way, especially during meals • It is rude to use one finger to beckon with, or point at, a person • Standing with hands on hips suggests anger • It is best to avoid making a fist with one hand and hitting hit against the other hand because many Malays see this as an obscene gesture. HO 0708

  38. Week 12Dining Preferences • Malays eat with spoons and use their right hand only • Eating pork, eating meat that is not halal and drinking alcohol are haram (forbidden) • Rice is the main food in a Malay meal • Malay food is hot and spicy • Malays enjoy rich, sweet desserts – often based on sago, glutinous rice, mung beans or bean flour HO 0708

  39. Week 12Service and Accommodation Preferences • Hotels and restaurants in Malaysia have large numbers of staff who are trained to be very attentive • Malaysians dissaprove of dress that is too brightly coloured or informal, especially if a lot of bare skin is shown • Malaysians hotels have a small arrow on the ceiling indicating the direction of the holy city of Mecca • In Malay homes, the toilet is separate from the bathroom and the squat type of toilet is common • Tipping is becoming widespread – a 15% service charge and tax is added to all bills HO 0708

  40. Week 12Business Meeting Etiquette • It is a good idea for the most senior person on your team to enter first so that he or she is the first to greet the most senior Malaysian. • This gives face to both parties as it demonstrates respect towards the Malaysian and shows that you respect hierarchy within your company. • It is customary for leaders to sit opposite each other around the table. • Many companies will have their team seated in descending rank, although this is not always the case. • Expect the most senior Malaysian to give a brief welcoming speech. You need not reciprocate. HO 0708

  41. Week 12Business Meeting Etiquette • There will be a period of small talk, which will end when the most senior Malaysian is comfortable moving to the business discussion. • Meetings may be conducted or continue over lunch and dinner. • Meetings, especially initial ones, are generally somewhat formal. Treat all Malaysian participants with respect and be cautious not to lose your temper or appear irritated. • At the first meeting between two companies, Malaysians will generally not get into in-depth discussions. They prefer to use the first meeting as an opportunity to get to know the other side and build a rapport, which is essential in this consensus-driven culture. HO 0708

  42. Week 12Gift Giving Etiquette Gift giving to Malays: • If invited to someone's home for dinner, bring the hostess pastries or good quality chocolates. • Never give alcohol. • Do not give toy dogs or pigs to children. • Do not give anything made of pigskin. • Avoid white wrapping paper as it symbolizes death and mourning. • Avoid yellow wrapping paper, as it is the color of royalty. • If you give food, it must be “halal” (meaning permissible for Muslims). • Offer gifts with the right hand only or both hands if the item is large. • Gifts are generally not opened when received. HO 0708

  43. Week 12Gift Giving Etiquette Gift giving to Chinese: • If invited to someone's home, bring a small gift of fruit, sweets, or cakes, saying that it is for the children. • A gift is traditionally refused before it is accepted to demonstrate that the recipient is not greedy. • Do not give scissors, knives or other cutting utensils as they indicate a desire to sever the relationship. • Flowers do not make good gifts as they are given to the sick and are used at funerals. • Do not wrap gifts in mourning colours - white, blue, or black. • Wrap the gifts in happy colours - red, pink, or yellow. • Never wrap a gift for a baby or decorate the gift in any way with a stork, as birds are the harbinger of death. • It is best to give gifts in even numbers since odd numbers are unlucky. • Gifts are generally not opened when received. HO 0708

  44. Week 12Gift Giving Etiquette Gift giving to Indians: • If you give flowers, avoid frangipani as they are used in funeral wreaths. • Money should be given in odd numbers. • Offer gifts with the right hand only or both hands if the item is large. • Do not wrap gifts in white or black. • Wrap gifts in red, yellow or green paper or other bright colors as these bring good fortune. • Do not give leather products to a Hindu. • Do not give alcohol unless you are certain the recipient drinks. • Gifts are generally not opened when received. HO 0708

  45. Week 12SINGAPORE HO 0708

  46. Week 12Singapore: Facts & Statistics • Location: Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia • Capital: Singapore • Population: 4,353,893 (July 2004 est.) • Ethnic Make-up: Chinese 76.7%, Malay 14%, Indian 7.9%, other 1.4% • Religions: Buddhist (Chinese), Muslim (Malays), Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Taoist, Confucianist • The Language:Singapore has four national languages: Mandarin, Malay, Tamil and English. For business and politics, English is the language of choice. HO 0708

  47. Week 12Culture and Society The Family The concepts of group, harmony, and mutual security are more important than that of the individual. The family is the centre of the social structure and emphasizes unity, loyalty and respect for the elderly. The term, 'family' generally includes extended family and close friends who are treated as family members. Respect for the elderly and seeing the family as the place one goes to for support, both help retain core values in this island nation. HO 0708

  48. Week 12Culture and Society Face & Respect Having face indicates personal dignity. Singaporeans are very sensitive to retaining face in all aspects of their lives. Face is a prized commodity that can be given, lost, taken away or earned. It is a mark of personal qualities such as a good name, good character, and being held in esteem by one's peers. It can also be greater than the person and extend to family, school, company, and even the nation itself. Face is what makes Singaporeans strive for harmonious relationships HO 0708

  49. Week 12Culture and Society Ethnic Diversity Singapore is a multi-ethnic society : Chinese, Malay and Indian The three main ethnic groups are religiously and culturally diverse. HO 0708