Getting to Know
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Getting to Know Aperture Aperture As the f-stop numbers go up in number the aperture size becomes smaller Traditionally, the f-stop setting is located on the lens barrel Depth of Field

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Getting to Know

Aperture


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Aperture

As the f-stop numbers go up

in number the aperture size becomes smaller

Traditionally, the

f-stop setting is located on the lens barrel


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Depth of Field

Depth of field is the area from near to far in a scene that is acceptably sharp/in focus in a photograph


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Depth of Field

  • One of the most important aspects of taking a good photograph

  • Determined by aperture size

    • Small apertures have greater depth of field than larger apertures

    • e.g. f/22 had greater depth of field than f/2.8

      • Remember that small f-stop means larger opening and therefore less depth of field




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Depth of Field

Mark Kauffman, Princess Margaret Inspecting King’s African Rifles, Mauritius, 1956


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Depth of Field

  • Plane of Critical Focus

    • The focal point or area of your photograph

    • Think of it as the midpoint of your depth of field

    • Should be what you are focusing your lens on

      when taking a

      photograph


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Aperture & ART

f/5.6

f/16


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Aperture & ART

When using selective focusing,

make sure that you select a depth of field that is shallow enough to blur unwanted details completely.

Maximum Aperture focused

on a single bloom.


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Aperture & ART

With fairly even light, the smallest aperture was used to ensure the image was sharp from front to back. The resulting shutter speed was 4 seconds.

Cathedral Interior, Cordoba


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Aperture & ART

A short depth of field allows the cow’s eye to be in sharp focus while the cow’s tongue and the horizon are blurred.


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Determining Exposure: Shutter & Aperture

  • Exposure is the combination of aperture (f-stop) and shutter speed used to allow the correct amount of light to reach the film

  • Exposure is also determined by film speed

    • If the film speed is not set correctly the exposure will be off

    • Film speed is denoted by ASA or ISO: this is a system to rate the film speed, with the higher the ASA number, the more sensitive the film is to light

    • Higher film speed is “faster” and more sensitive (can be used with less light)

      • 400 is faster than 200, 200 is ideal for outdoors, 400 for all purpose


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Determining Exposure: Shutter & Aperture

When determining exposure, the photographer must take into account Depth of Field and Motion.

Shutter Speed 1/8

Aperture f/16

Shutter Speed 1/125

Aperture f/4

Shutter Speed 1/500

Aperture f/2


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Determining Exposure: Shutter & Aperture

APERTURE

F/1.4

F/2

F/2.8

F/4

F/5.6

F/8

F/11

F/16

F/22

F/32

F/64

SHUTTER

1/1000

1/500

1/250

1/125

1/60

1/30

1/15

1/8

1/4

1/2

1

B

Doubling

Halving

Halving

Doubling