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Agenda Tuesday, July 19. Cash-crops role play exercise Isaacman and Searing. Lecture: The colonial apex. Background: Eastern Nigeria and the Aba Women’s War. . Cash crops role-play exercise. Mozambique

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Agenda tuesday july 19
AgendaTuesday, July 19

  • Cash-crops role play exercise

    • Isaacman and Searing.

  • Lecture: The colonial apex.

    • Background: Eastern Nigeria and the Aba Women’s War.

Cash crops role play exercise
Cash crops role-play exercise

  • Mozambique

    • Goal: create an ideal economic cash crop policy, within the context identified by Isaacman.

      • Secondary goal: examine and explain the rationalizations for Portuguese policies of forced labour, and understand the range of responses open to peasants.

  • Group 1: Portuguese colonialists

  • Group 2: Mozambican peasants

  • Senegal

    • Goal: to understand what motivated and shaped the development of the peanut economy.

      • Secondary goal: examine and account for the role of the colonial state in developing the peanut economy.

  • Group 3: Senegalese household head

  • Group 4: Administration and trading groups/classes

The colonial apex
The colonial apex

  • Tremendous social growth and change, 1920s and 1930s

  • Stability and peace

  • New social and economic opportunities

  • Population boom

  • Greater access to education

Colonial challenges
…colonial challenges

  • New elites vs. entrenched hierarchies.

  • Workers; wealth, identity, networks, control.

  • Peasants; new social standing.

  • Development of new identities.

  • Challenges to traditional rulers.

Colonial attempts at containment 1920s 1939
Colonial attempts at containment: 1920s-1939

  • Critiques from within the colonial bureaucracy.

  • Response; greater intervention, enlargement of state.

  • ‘Retribalization’; shore up support for traditional rulers and indirect rule.

    • Problems with colonial notion of ‘tribe’

Second wave of colonialism 1939 1950s
Second wave of colonialism, 1939-1950s

  • Turn away from indirect rule, greater colonial influence.

  • Colonial Welfare and Development Acts, 1940 and 1945.

  • New emphases on political and economic development.

    • Mechanization of agriculture

    • Promotion of industry

    • Environmental degradation

Tanganyika groundnut scheme
Tanganyika groundnut scheme

  • Embodiment of second-wave colonialism.

  • Mechanized peanut cultivation, akin to Canadian prairies.

  • Failure of equipment.

  • Poor choice of land.

  • Net loss: £49 million.

Background to the aba women s war
Background to the Aba ‘Women’s war’

  • Interpretations have attributed the conflict to;

    • Taxation

    • Gender conflict

    • Secondary resistance

    • Anti-colonial nationalism

    • Class conflict

    • Agitation against chiefs/indirect rule

Pre colonial igbo
Pre-colonial Igbo

  • Heterarchical societies.

  • Governed by assemblies of common (titled) people.

  • Comparable to republican assemblies, modern democracy.


  • 1901-1914, sporadic disturbance until 1920.

  • Fought on a town-by-town basis.

    • Lack of larger political unity.

  • Drawn-out and violent conflict.

Colonial nigeria eastern province
Colonial Nigeria, Eastern Province

  • Creation of ‘warrants’ and ‘warrant chiefs’

  • Spread of Christianity.

  • Imposition of tax.

Significant themes
Significant themes

  • Taxation

    • Imposed on men in 1928.

    • In pre-colonial society, women were not taxed on produce, merchandise or possessions.

  • ‘Sitting’

    • Form of protest, rooted in pre-colonial society.

    • Designed to shame, until accused repents and offers restitution.

    • Mainly non-violent, could involve destruction of property.

Aba women s war historical commission of inquiry
Aba Women’s War: Historical commission of inquiry

  • Terms of reference:

  • to uncover the individual causes of the ‘women’s war’, and assess their contribution to stimulating the conflict.

  • to identify historical interpretations of the conflict, and assess their arguments and agendas.

  • Group 1: Perham

  • Group 2: Van Allen

  • Group 3: Bastian

  • Group 4: Chuku

  • Each group must be prepared to present the evidence from their article, and provide initial assessment.

    • Each group must ask one question for each of the other articles, highlighting their main themes, ideas, or arguments.