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Early Cinema
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  1. Early Cinema Lecture 2

  2. Basic Terms • Frame (2 senses) • Parameters of the image • One frame of a film strip • Still image • A photograph; each frame is a still image • Production still vs. frame enlargement • apparent motion and critical flicker fusion • 24 frames per second (current) vs. 16-20 frames per second (in early cinema) • Sprockets • Gauge: film width (e.g. 35mm, 16mm, 8mm, 70mm) • Aspect ratio: until 1950s= 4:3 (width to height)

  3. sprocket frame gauge

  4. Early Cinema 1895 Beginning of cinema • three precursors • Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904)—multiple cameras to capture motion • Étienne-Jules Marey (1830-1904)—invented chronophotography in the 1880s (recorded several phases of movement on one photographic surface) • Thomas Edison (inventor of the first kinetoscope1891) • Lumière brothers—responsible for the first public film screening in Paris on December 28th 1895 using the cinematograph (which functioned as a camera, projector, and printer—all in one)

  5. Eadweard Muybridge

  6. Muybridge Link to UC Riverside Museum • http://138.23.124.165/collections/permanent/object_genres/photographers/muybridge/

  7. Étienne Jules Marey: graphic method

  8. Étienne Jules Marey

  9. Étienne Jules Marey: chronophotography

  10. Muybridge’s projection device: the zoopraxiscope

  11. The Kinetoscope(peep-show device)

  12. Kinetoscope Functioning

  13. Kinetoscope parlor (circa 1894)

  14. Edison and the Black Maria(me-rai-e) Studio

  15. Mutoscope (peep-show device)1895-1909

  16. Mutoscope (peep-show device)-1895-1909

  17. The Cinematographe (Lumière)

  18. Cinematographe (cont.)

  19. Formal innovations 1:From the single shots to multiple shots, from still camera to moving camera • Single shots • Actualities, direct address, “the fourth wall” • Ex: Lumière, Edison • Moving camera • The “phantom” ride films • Ex: Lumière: “Leaving Jerusalem”; • Multi-shot “phantom” ride • Ex: G.A. Smith: “The Kiss in the Tunnel”

  20. Single shot: Lumière 1896: Children digging for clams

  21. Single shot: Lumière 1896: Promenade of Ostriches

  22. Moving Camera: Phantom ridesLumière, 1896: Leaving Jerusalem by Railway

  23. Moving Camera, Multi-shot Phantom ride: G.A. Smith, 1899: Kiss in the Tunnel

  24. Formal innovations 2: • Multi-scene films • Shot transitions • Dissolve • Ex: Méliès: “A Trip to the Moon” 1902 • Straight cut • Ex: Williamson: “Stop, Thief!” 1901 • Vertical wipe • Ex: G.A. Smith: “Mary Jane’s Mishap” • Pull focus • Dream transition • Ex: G.A. Smith: “Let me Dream Again” 1900 • Scene Dissection • Cut-in, insert, masking, point of view shots • Ex: G.A. Smith: “Granma’s Reading Glass” 1900 • Camera repositioning and cut-in/insert • Ex: G.A. Smith: “The Sick Kitten” 1903 • Ex: G.A. Smith: “Mary Jane’s Mishap” 1903

  25. Multiple scenes 1: transitions: dissolves: Méliès, 1902: From Trip to the Moon

  26. Multi-Scene films 1: transitions: straight cuts: Williamson, “chase films,” 1901: Stop Thief!

  27. Multi-Scene films 1: transitions: vertical wipe: G.A. Smith, “Mary Jane Mishap,” 1903

  28. Multiple scenes 1: transitions: Pull focus: G.A. Smith, 1900: Let me Dream Again

  29. Multi-Scene films 2: Cut-ins, masking, point-of-view [p.o.v] shots: G.A. Smith, 1900: Grandma’s Reading Glass

  30. More masking, cut-ins, and p.o.v. shots:G.A. Smith: “As Seen Through a Telescope,” 1900

  31. More masking, cut-ins, and p.o.v.shots:Pathé Frères, “Peeping Tom,” 1901

  32. Formal innovations 2: Camera Repositioning: G.A. Smith, “The Sick Kitten” 1903

  33. Formal innovations 2: Camera Repositioning: G.A. Smith,”Maryjane’s Mishap”

  34. Formal innovations 3: • Multi-scene films (cont.) • Screen direction • Ex: Méliès: “A Trip to the Moon” 1902 • Mental subjectivity (rendering interiority) • Dreaming and visions • Set within a set • Ex: Zecca: “History of a Crime” 1901 • Photographic superimposition • Ex: Porter: “Life of an American Fireman” 1903 • Ex: “Mary Jane’s Mishap” 1903 • Perceptual subjectivity (creating ‘sensual impact’) • Ex: Hepworth: “How it feels to be run over” 1900

  35. Formal innovations 3: Screen Direction: Méliès, 1902

  36. Formal innovations 3: Dreamingset within a set: “History of a Crime”

  37. Formal innovations 3: DreamingPhotographic superimposition: “Life of an American Fireman”

  38. Formal innovations 3: visionssuperimposition: “Mary Jane’s Mishap”

  39. Formal innovations 3: Perceptual Subjectivity:Hepworth: “How it feels to be run over”

  40. Formal innovations 4 • Multi-scene films (cont.) • Tricks • Stop motion • Ex: Méliès: “A trip to the moon” • Ex: Hepworth: motorist • Ex: Williamson: “The Big Swallow”

  41. Formal innovations 4: Méliès

  42. Formal innovations 4: Méliès

  43. Formal innovations 4: Méliès

  44. Formal innovations 4: tricks: The Big Swallow