4. Karnaugh Maps and Circuits

1 / 15

# 4. Karnaugh Maps and Circuits - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

4. Karnaugh Maps and Circuits. Objective: To know how to simplify switching functions by Karnaugh maps, To understand what are the combinative and sequential circuits, To know the characteristics of the integrated circuits. 4.1 Simplification of Switching Functions. Why simplify and optimize?

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

## PowerPoint Slideshow about '4. Karnaugh Maps and Circuits' - nora

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
4. Karnaugh Maps and Circuits
• Objective: To know how to simplify switching functions by Karnaugh maps,
• To understand what are the combinative and sequential circuits,
• To know the characteristics of the integrated circuits.
4.1 Simplification of Switching Functions
• Why simplify and optimize?
• Constraints
• Cost (\$\$\$)!
• How?
• Algebraic method (still…)
• Karnaugh maps (wow!)
Algebraic Handling *

Canonical form:

L = A’B’C’+A’BC’+AB’C’+AB’C+ABC’

9 NOT (* 1) + 5 AND (* 3) + 1 OR (* 5) = 29

Simplified Form:

L = AB’ + C’

2 NOT (* 1) + 1 AND (* 2) + 1 OR (* 2) = 6

Karnaugh Maps (I)
• Simplification by algebraic method is DIFFICULT!
• Method of simplification graphically suggested: Karnaugh maps
• Usable with functions up to 6 variables
B

B’

A’

m0

m1

m2

m3

A

1

1

0

0

A

Example *
• Diagram - 2 variables
• f(A, B) = m(0, 1) = A’

B

Karnaugh Maps (II)
• Can be conceived from:
• Truth tables
• Canonical CSOP or SOP form
• Canonical CPOS or POS form
• Can give result like:
• Minimal Sum of Products (SOP) form
• Minimal Products of Sums (POS) form
1

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

Example *
• f (A, B, C, D) = m (0,1,2,5,8,9,10)
• f SOP=
• fPOS =

C

B'D' + B'C' + A'C'D

B

A

(A' + B') • (C' + D') • (B' + D)

D

C

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

B

0

0

1

1

A

0

0

1

1

D

Simplification *
• Simplify starting from the SOP form:f (A, B, C, D) = CD’+A’D+ACD
C

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

B

0

0

1

1

A

0

0

1

1

D

Simplification *
• Simplify starting from the SOP form:f (A, B, C, D) = CD’+A’D+ACD

= C + A’D

Karnaugh Maps (III)
• Don’t-Care values (X)
• Certain switching functions are known as incompletely defined: certain combinations of their variables of inputs are never supposed to occur or not to have an effect on the result. One calls these combinations don’t-care values and one indicates them as ' X' in the truth tables.
• In the Karnaugh maps, one considers them like 1 (SOP) or of the 0 (POS) only to make larger groupings, but it is not necessary to gather them.
C

X

1

1

1

0

X

1

0

B

0

0

1

0

A

0

0

1

0

D

Don’t-Care Values *
• Simplify f (A, B, C, D) = m (1, 2, 3, 7, 11, 15) X (0, 5)
• f SOP =A’B’ + CD
• The minterm 5 should not be included; it would not be minimal!
S

1

S

m

S

1

S

m

4.2 Circuits
• Combinational:
• Sequential:

E

1

Output Variables

input Variables

combinational

E

n

circuit

E

1

Output Variables

Input Variables

combinational

E

n

circuit

States

memory

Integrated Circuits (I)
• The integrated circuits, material manufacture of logic gates and more complex functions, are characterized in several ways.
• Why they used are?
• Level of integretion? Quantity of transistors in a circuit.
Integrated circuits (II)
• Manufacturing Technologies
• Other characteristics