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West African Societies and Empires. Chapter 5 and 6. Human and Environmental Interactions. Depend on the Environment Adapt to the Environment Modify the Environment. Africa. 2 nd Largest continent Deserts Rift Valleys Rainforests. Social Structures. AGE-Sets Extended Family.

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human and environmental interactions
Human and Environmental Interactions
  • Depend on the Environment
  • Adapt to the Environment
  • Modify the Environment
africa
Africa
  • 2nd Largest continent
  • Deserts
  • Rift Valleys
  • Rainforests
social structures
Social Structures
  • AGE-Sets
  • Extended Family
in the village
In the Village
  • There was a family
  • Mom, dad, brothers and sisters
in the village1
In the Village
  • There was an extended family
  • Mom, Dad, sisters, brothers and close relatives
in the village2
In the Village
  • There were age-sets
  • People of the same age helped each other out
loyalty to family
LOYALTY to FAMILY
  • Everyone had specific jobs in their family and village
slide9
Men
  • Hunted and farmed
    • Crops: Millet and sorghum
    • Raised goats and sheep
women
Women
  • Collected firewood
  • Ground Grain
  • Carried Water
  • Looked after children
elders old people
Elders (old people)
  • Taught family traditions to the younger generations
      • Songs, dances and stories
      • Community history and values
children
Children
  • Worked beside the older family members as soon as they were able
religion
Religion
  • BELIEFS
religion1
Religion
  • Religion was similar from village to village
  • Animism
      • Belief that bodies of water animals, trees and other natural objects had spirits
religion2
Religion
  • Traditional beliefs
      • unseen spirits of ancestors stayed near by
      • Families offered food to these ancestors
traditional beliefs
Traditional Beliefs
  • Traditional beliefs were based off of the families. The families were the basic group of village society.
  • Traditional: customary or time-honored
crops
Crops
  • Dates: raised in desert oasis
  • Kola Nuts: Used for medicines
resources
Resources
  • Salt: When ancient lakes dried up they left salt behind
  • Gold: found in secret mines and used for jewelry
culture and trade
Culture and Trade
  • When west Africa was damp people lived further apart because they could rely on the earths resources, but as time changed the earth got dryer and people had to live closer together to depend on one another. Thus came SOCIAL STRUCTURES!!
technology brought change
Technology brought change
  • Heating rock= IRON
  • IRON= Strong tools
  • STRONG TOOLS= more crops
  • MORE CROPS= trading
  • Nok people became good farmers and hunters and gained power
trade trade trade
TRADE-TRADE-TRADE
  • Desert Trade
    • Not so smart people used horses, but horses had to stop and drink at every oasis
    • Then they started used camels 200AD
    • Camels allowed people to cross the desert in 2 months
    • They formed caravans
    • Berbers were know for crossing the desert
desert trade
DESERT TRADE
  • Desert Trade was dangerous because…
      • Supplies ran low
      • Thieves
      • Loose their way (sand was everywhere)
trade gold and salt
TRADE GOLD and SALT
  • Gold and Salt Mine=MONEY MONEY MONEY
  • Camels carried gold and salt from the Sahara desert in the north to the south for trade
  • EUROPE and the ISLAMIC world received gold and salt
  • Along with gold and salt, they traded cloth, copper, and silver and sold humans
timbuktu
TIMBUKTU
  • Famous trading center in 1100AD
slide28
Once upon a time, way far away in West Africa, grew a country named Ghana. Now Ghana was not like most countries…
slide29
It was special. See Ghana was the center of trade. And the trade all started with the Soninke. But who were the Soninke?
slide30
The Soninke were farmers in 300AD. They banned together and united to form Ghana. They were amazing farmers. They farmed across the Niger River and most of West Africa.
slide31
The Soninke were not only good farmers but they were smart. They used Iron tools to farm. And soon more food meant more people and Ghana became the center for trade.
slide32
Ghana was the center of trade. Salt came from the North and Gold came from the South. Ghana was growing and growing.
slide33
Trading happened like this: The people who owned the salt and gold would trade each other for goods. But they would trade without ever contacting each other.
slide35
Through Silent Barter, a process in which people exchange goods without ever contacting each other directly. Gold mines had to be kept secret from the salt traders. SHHHH.
slide37
So over time the trading increased so Ghana's power grew and military grew too. Ghana was in control of the trade routes.
slide39
Soon thanks to trade, Ghana’s capitol city became the largest in west Africa. KOUMBI SALEH
slide40
Ghana was doing just fine, and in 800AD Ghana was in control of the trade routes. Ghana even protected the traders with an Army. But…
slide42
In came taxes. Ghana’s rulers forced
  • traders to pay taxes.
  • The people of Ghana had to pay taxes
  • Tribes they conquered had to pay taxes.
slide44
The Gold trade was getting so big that the Gold Mines were producing enough gold to trade with England. But…
slide47
The kings got richer. And used the money to build the Empire GHANA. So they conquered land.
slide48
KING OF GHANA
  • King of conquered land
  • King of conquered land
  • King of conquered land
slide49
The greatest of all greatest kings was TUNKA MANIN. But a great empire like Ghana cant last forever…
slide51
In the mid 1060s AD Ghana was Rich and Powerful, but by the 1200s Ghana was no More. But how, you might ask?
slide52
Remember the Islamic Empire….A Muslim group Almorvids attacked Ghana in 1060 and wanted to convert everyone to Islam.
slide53
The people of Ghana fought them for 14 years, and won, but the Almoravids, weaken this once strong empire.
slide54
The Almoravids came in and brought herds of animals into Ghana, and the animals ate all the grass, this left the soil exposed and the land worthless. So.
slide55
No food, means hungry people and hungry people get angry and soon Ghana was at war with each other, and the empire collapsed.
mali empire
Mali Empire
  • Story time
slide58
There once was an Empire…Mali. This Empire was special, as it lay in the fertile land on the Niger river. The Niger River helped this Empire grow into a HUGE POWERFUL EMPIRE. But that did not happen over night.
slide60
Sundiata was a son of a pervious King. And boy did he hate his father. So he made an army and….
slide64
Cotton. And he did not farm this cotton, oh no, he had slaves farm it. But where did he get these slaves?
slide66
Not only did he make the people slaves, but he took power from both the people and local leaders he conquered.
slide67
When Sundiata died in 1255AD his son took power and then when his son died Muslims came to power.
slide71
He was Muslim and wanted to spread Islam to West Africa. ( Remember the Rise and Spread of Islam?)
slide72
So Mansa Musa ruled Mali for 25 years. He was in charge of these important trade routes:
  • Timbuktu, Gao, Djenne.
slide74
In 1324 Mansa Musa left Mali and went to make his pilgrimage to Mecca. But this trip was not like every other trip.
slide75
You see Mansa Musa traveled with 100 camels, 300 pounds of gold on EACH camel, and 60,000 men. Well his first stop was…
slide76
Cairo Egypt, and Mansa Musa made such an impression that Mali became famous throughout Africa, Asia and Europe.
slide77
So Mansa Musa was looked at as a very important leader, but Ms. M liked him for a different reason…
slide79
Mansa Musa Supported Education!!!! He sent scholars to Morocco and these Scholars set up schools in Mali for studying.
slide80
In the schools they studied the Quran, and Arabic was the main language for the Government and Religion.
slide81
Mansa Musa was determined to spread Islam to West Africa, so he built mosques thought-out the empire. And many Muslims from Asia, Egypt and other parts of Africa visited Mali.
slide85
Mali had become to large to control and cities were declaring independent. Then in 1431 Tuareg nomads from the Sahara desert seized Timbuktu.
slide89
Once upon a time, there was an Empire Songhai. Now this Empire was similar to the other two Empires.
slide90
See way back when. Songhai used to be part of the Mali empire, until the Songhai people broke free.

MALI

slide94
The Songhai were Muslims and so they traded with another Muslim group the Berbers. And the Songhai were getting
slide96
The Songhai were getting so rich that they were building a strong empire. And soon Sunni Ali came to power.
slide97
Sunni Ali was leader in 1464 and he worked hard to organize, strengthen and unify the empire.
slide98
Sunni Ali conquered Timbuktu and Djeene from Mali and encouraged his people to work together
slide99
Sunni Ali participated in both Muslim and traditional religion, which allowed him to be liked all around.
slide100
Sunni Ali brought peace and stability to Songhai. The people were very saddened when he died in 1492. (the same year Columbus sailed the ocean blue)
slide105
Timbuktu soon had, universities, schools, libraries and mosques. The most famous of all was the University of Sankore
slide106
The Songhai Empire was growing and growing. Djenne was becoming the center of learning also.
slide107
In Djenne, scientist found out that mosquitos spread malaria. This was a very important finding for the people of Songhai.
slide109
Askia even organized his government. He organized it into five provinces and allowed local leaders to rule.
slide110
Askia even created special departments to oversee certain tasks in the government. And he had Muslim influence on the government.
slide114
The Moroccan ruler decide to attack Songhai for the gold and salt. But this attack was not like any other attack. You see…
west african
West African
  • Historical and Artistic Traditions
slide118
West African societies had no written language. What they did write down was in Arabic.
  • Types of people who could write:
  • Muslim traders
  • Government officials
  • Religious leaders
slide119
Oral History
  • Is a spoken record of past events
slide120
Africa story tellers were called GROITS
  • The Groits were highly respected, and kept history alive. They told stories of deeds of people ancestors and stories of the rise and fall of West Africa.
slide121
Epics were long poems about kingdoms and hero's
  • Dausi Epic- Tells about Ghana
  • Sudiata Epic- Tells about Mali
slide122
Much of West African stories come from travelers or scholars from Muslim lands such as Spain or Arabia Peninsula
slide123
West African Arts
  • Sculptures made of wood, brass, clay, stone, ivory and other materials
  • Masks made of hyenas, lions, monkeys and antelopes
  • Kenteis the hand-woven brightly colored fabric
  • Dances ere important visual arts
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