West African Societies and Empires Chapter 5 and 6
Human and Environmental Interactions • Depend on the Environment • Adapt to the Environment • Modify the Environment
Africa • 2nd Largest continent • Deserts • Rift Valleys • Rainforests
Social Structures • AGE-Sets • Extended Family
In the Village • There was a family • Mom, dad, brothers and sisters
In the Village • There was an extended family • Mom, Dad, sisters, brothers and close relatives
In the Village • There were age-sets • People of the same age helped each other out
LOYALTY to FAMILY • Everyone had specific jobs in their family and village
Men • Hunted and farmed • Crops: Millet and sorghum • Raised goats and sheep
Women • Collected firewood • Ground Grain • Carried Water • Looked after children
Elders (old people) • Taught family traditions to the younger generations • Songs, dances and stories • Community history and values
Children • Worked beside the older family members as soon as they were able
Religion • BELIEFS
Religion • Religion was similar from village to village • Animism • Belief that bodies of water animals, trees and other natural objects had spirits
Religion • Traditional beliefs • unseen spirits of ancestors stayed near by • Families offered food to these ancestors
Traditional Beliefs • Traditional beliefs were based off of the families. The families were the basic group of village society. • Traditional: customary or time-honored
Trade: Movement • GOLD • SALT
Crops • Dates: raised in desert oasis • Kola Nuts: Used for medicines
Resources • Salt: When ancient lakes dried up they left salt behind • Gold: found in secret mines and used for jewelry
Culture and Trade • When west Africa was damp people lived further apart because they could rely on the earths resources, but as time changed the earth got dryer and people had to live closer together to depend on one another. Thus came SOCIAL STRUCTURES!!
Technology brought change • Heating rock= IRON • IRON= Strong tools • STRONG TOOLS= more crops • MORE CROPS= trading • Nok people became good farmers and hunters and gained power
TRADE-TRADE-TRADE • Desert Trade • Not so smart people used horses, but horses had to stop and drink at every oasis • Then they started used camels 200AD • Camels allowed people to cross the desert in 2 months • They formed caravans • Berbers were know for crossing the desert
DESERT TRADE • Desert Trade was dangerous because… • Supplies ran low • Thieves • Loose their way (sand was everywhere)
TRADE GOLD and SALT • Gold and Salt Mine=MONEY MONEY MONEY • Camels carried gold and salt from the Sahara desert in the north to the south for trade • EUROPE and the ISLAMIC world received gold and salt • Along with gold and salt, they traded cloth, copper, and silver and sold humans
TIMBUKTU • Famous trading center in 1100AD
Once upon a time, way far away in West Africa, grew a country named Ghana. Now Ghana was not like most countries…
It was special. See Ghana was the center of trade. And the trade all started with the Soninke. But who were the Soninke?
The Soninke were farmers in 300AD. They banned together and united to form Ghana. They were amazing farmers. They farmed across the Niger River and most of West Africa.
The Soninke were not only good farmers but they were smart. They used Iron tools to farm. And soon more food meant more people and Ghana became the center for trade.
Ghana was the center of trade. Salt came from the North and Gold came from the South. Ghana was growing and growing.
Trading happened like this: The people who owned the salt and gold would trade each other for goods. But they would trade without ever contacting each other.
Through Silent Barter, a process in which people exchange goods without ever contacting each other directly. Gold mines had to be kept secret from the salt traders. SHHHH.
So over time the trading increased so Ghana's power grew and military grew too. Ghana was in control of the trade routes.
Soon thanks to trade, Ghana’s capitol city became the largest in west Africa. KOUMBI SALEH
Ghana was doing just fine, and in 800AD Ghana was in control of the trade routes. Ghana even protected the traders with an Army. But…
Ghana was becoming greedy and wanted to look for a way to make more money. SO..
In came taxes. Ghana’s rulers forced • traders to pay taxes. • The people of Ghana had to pay taxes • Tribes they conquered had to pay taxes.
Money Money Money from taxes. So they built a stronger army with all the money.
The Gold trade was getting so big that the Gold Mines were producing enough gold to trade with England. But…
The people of Ghana could own only gold dust, but the kings could own Gold Nuggets. So
The kings got richer. And used the money to build the Empire GHANA. So they conquered land.
KING OF GHANA • King of conquered land • King of conquered land • King of conquered land
The greatest of all greatest kings was TUNKA MANIN. But a great empire like Ghana cant last forever…