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Jacksonian Democracy

Jacksonian Democracy

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Jacksonian Democracy

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  1. Jacksonian Democracy Chapter 10, Section 1 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/zh/c/c9/Andrew-Jackson.jpg http://www.utexas.edu/features/2005/jackson/graphics/jackson4.jpg

  2. Election of 1824 • Several Republican candidates ran • Three were favorite sons (supported by home states rather than national party) • Henry Clay, Andrew Jackson, & John Quincy Adams • No one candidate received majority of electoral vote • House prepared to vote to decide • Clay & Adams made an agreement to use Clay’s influence as Speaker of the House to help get Adam’s elected over Jackson • John Quincy Adams was elected president http://www.classbrain.com/artbiographies/uploads/john-quincy-adams.jpg

  3. Election of 1824

  4. Political Parties 1828 • Democratic Republicans • Supported Andrew Jackson • Favored states’ rights & mistrusted strong central government • Many Democrats were frontier people, immigrants, or city workers • National Republicans • Supported John Quincy Adams • Wanted strong central government • Supported federal measures, such as road building & a national bank, that would help the economy • Many were merchants or farmers

  5. Two Candidates John Quincy Adams Vs Andrew Jackson

  6. Election of 1828 • Both parties resorted to mudslinging or attempts to ruin their opponents reputation • John C. Calhoun (Adam’s former VP) switched parties & sided with Jackson • Jackson won votes of frontier people & Southerners = won in a landslide

  7. Election of 1828 http://www.multied.com/PageMill_Images/image2.gif http://www.multied.com/PageMill_Images/image5.gif

  8. Election of 1828: State Results http://www.columbia.edu/itc/history/foner/jacksonian_america/week5-second_party/election_1828.jpg

  9. What helped Jackson be elected? • Jackson became a national hero during the War of 1812 • His nickname was “Old Hickory” because he was as tough as a hickory tree • Jackson was seen as a “common man” and small farmers, craft workers, & others supported him • Suffrage, or the right to vote, had been expanded • Property requirements for voting were relaxed or eliminated

  10. Jackson’s Inauguration http://www.columbia.edu/itc/history/foner/jacksonian_america/week5-second_party/

  11. Jackson Assassination Attempt

  12. Spoils System • “To the Victor Goes the Spoils” • President Jackson replaced many federal workers with his supporters • Goal of the Democrats = shake up the federal bureaucracy • They thought ordinary citizens could handle any government job • Spoils System = practice of replacing government employees with the winning candidate’s supporters

  13. “To the Victor Goes the Spoils” http://dig.lib.niu.edu/teachers/jackson-spoils.jpg

  14. Kitchen Cabinet • Jackson put unqualified people in his Cabinet & did not meet with them • He met with other advisors in the kitchen of the White House. • These advisors became known as the Kitchen Cabinet

  15. A Crisis Over Tariffs • Tariff: a fee paid by merchants who imported goods • Tariff of Abominations: name Southerners gave to the highest tariff ever • It was passed to protect Northern manufacturers from foreign competition (Americans were more likely to buy American-made goods) • South had to pay higher prices for European goods

  16. How did the South Protest the Tariff? • V.P. John C. Calhoun argued that a state or a group of states had the right to nullify, or cancel, a federal law it considered against state interests • Some Southerners call for Southern states to secede, or break away, from the U.S. • Nullification Crisis • Nullification: the idea that a state had the right to cancel a federal law it considered unconstitutional • Congress (1832) passed a new lower tariff & Pres. Jackson had Congress pass a Force Bill, allowing military action to enforce acts of Congress John C. Calhoun http://www.columbia.edu/itc/history/foner/jacksonian_america/week5-second_party/calhoun.jpg

  17. Nullification Crisis http://www.columbia.edu/itc/history/foner/jacksonian_america/week5-second_party/nullification.jpg