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Jacksonian Democracy

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  1. “His adversity was his university” Jacksonian Democracy While the US was busy gathering land (via conquest!), it was also busy democratizing its own institutions. The Era from 1820 to 1850 is often called the Age of Reform, while others call it Jacksonian Democracy. This era brings with it a sense of contradiction… it was marked with slavery, expansion, imperialism, and marginalization of minority populations. However, it also was an era of egalitarian (democratic, classless, or unrestricted) ideas spread. *Jackson served from 1829 to 1837*

  2. Post War of 1812 Era of Good Feelings Little political strife Most American’s have common outlooks Consensus & Relative harmony Element of lurking problems… Slavery & Sectionalism Democracy & the Common Man Rise of the common man as a participant in the political process White manhood suffrage Public Office—elected Most public offices Written ballot More educated population (Webster & Mann) National & State nominating conventions Women, Africans, and Native Americans do not benefit from changes

  3. Jackson in Office:Power of the Presidency Increased Election of 1824 JQA, Jackson, Henry Clay & William Crawford… all D-R’s Jackson's’ supporters declare this election a Corrupt Bargain Jackson lost to JQA: Jackson had more popular votes, but less electoral votes—12th Am. Senate tie breaker – JQA wins. Did Clay manipulate Adam’s win? “No” but… Eyebrows raised when JQA appoints Clay as Secretary of State (the ‘heir’) Election of 1828 Jackson seeks revenge & gets it—defeating JQA Jackson runs on the Democrat ticket, JQA the National Republican ticket National Republicans (“out of the ashes of the Federalist party”) National Republicans Whigs Modern Republicans Whigs: Founded by Henry Clay & generally opposed to the policies of Jackson, heirs to Fed. Party

  4. Chronology Overview

  5. Emergence of Modern Parties Jacksonians = Heirs to Jeffersonians • Supports: • expansion • political & economic freedom for white men • attack privilege & monopoly • opposed to protective tariff • suspicious of rapid social or economic change • Power base is rural South & West • Avoids the ‘slavery question’ whenever possible

  6. Increases the Power of the Presidency Jackson’s Toast: “Our Federal Union! It must be preserved!” Calhoun’s Reply Toast: “The Union, next to our liberty, most dear.” 1830 Nullification Crisis Tariff of 1828 (called the Tariff of Abominations in the South) VP Calhoun opposes it (writes, “The South Carolina Exposition & Protest”) -State Sovereignty, tariff unconstitutional, proposes to nullify it -Calhoun & South Carolina reasons to secede Tariff of 1832 -Calhoun & South Carolina reasons to secede -South Carolina declares it null & void -Jackson threatens Army invasion -Calhoun steps down from VP position to represent SC in Congress

  7. Increases the Power of the Presidency Spoils System Regarding Federal jobs: “To the victor belong the spoils” Defenders called it simply: Rotation in Office Kitchen Cabinet Jackson’s unofficial advisors Refusal to renew charter for Second Bank of the United States Despite McCulloch ruling (Nat’l bank trumps state banks)—Jackson hates it Bank = Monopoly & Preference, violates states’ rights & ‘foreigners’ According to Jackson’s Strict Interpretation: Unconstitutional too… 1832 Jackson’s opponents re-charter the bank, he VETOES it -Jackson used the veto power more than any President before him “The bank is trying to kill me, but I will kill it” -Fires Biddle -Withdraws federal funds, re-deposits it in state banks (pet banks) *Overextend, inflation occurs & Jackson issues specie circular -Economy plummets (1837 to 1843)

  8. Increases the Power of the Presidency Use of the Veto Maysville Road Veto—Jackson denies funding for a state road within Kentucky Sets precedent that construction of roads is a state burden… Political jab?

  9. Sectionalism INDUSTRIAL NORTHEAST • New England & Mid-Atlantic States • Shipping, fishing, lumbering, and farming – and industrialized significantly. • 1790 – Samuel Slater, 1798 – Whitney & guns/parts, 1813 – Lowell & Textile Mill • Textiles, iron implements, utensils, and machinery • Aided by shipbuilding, waterpower, coal, factory hands, invested capital • SOUTH & WEST represented a growing market for the Northeast’s manufactured goods PLANTATION SOUTH • South Atlantic and Southwestern states • Wealthy & influential plantation owners, and small subsistence farms • Raised cash crops • 1790-1826 Increased from 2 million to 330 million pounds of cotton per year • Rise was aided by cheap, fertile land that was plentiful, shifting west, the cotton gin, cotton-growing was a simple and year round activity, North and ENGLISH cities represented an ever-growing demand for cotton SMALL FARM WEST • Central and Northwestern states, West emphasized agriculture on the small, family-sized farm • Wheat, rye, corn, meat • Aided by fertile lands, liberal pricing of western lands, and free men worked hard on their own farms, seeking larger crops so as to better their economic status • Northern & English cities represent an ever-growing demand for foodstuffs

  10. Sectional Issues Any Type of Protective Tariff North FAVORS to protect workers against competitions South OPPOSED want lower costs, plus need to sell cotton West SUPPORTED foodstuffs to the North Second Bank of the United States North FAVORS as they need credit and stable currency South & West OPPOSE prefer states banks for easy credit Internal Improvements at the Federal Expense North SUPPORT generally supported South OPPOSE as they already had satisfactory routes West FAVOR need improvement to get products to North

  11. Sectional Issues Liberal Land Policy West strongly favored cheap land North opposed as they feared a loss of workers South was split—wanted cheap land, but feared politics Territorial Expansion South favored—wanted more slave states North opposed as they feared more slave states West generally support expansion, but anti-slavery Expansion of Slavery North & West were morally opposed, anti-slavery expansion, labor? South favored expansion of slavery into new territories… Economic ties

  12. The Bank Issue Second Bank of the United States 1. ORGANIZATION Chartered in 1816

  13. Sectionalism