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Balancing Nutrition. Food Physical Activity. According to the Oxford Dictionary: “the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water through 1 °C (now usually defined as 4.1868 joules ).” What is your definition?. WHAT IS A CALORIE?. Calories

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balancing nutrition

Balancing Nutrition

Food Physical Activity

what is a calorie

According to the Oxford Dictionary:

“the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water through 1 °C (now usually defined as 4.1868 joules).”

What is your definition?



Calories give us the energy we need to do our tasks.

  • Empty Calories – foods that are high in sugar and/or fat and provide little or no nutrients.
  • Calorie Dense – foods that contain a high amount of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals.

Traditional Calorie Needs Calculations:

Gender Formula

Men RMR = 88.362 + 4.799(cm) + 13.397(kg) - 5.677(age)

Women RMR = 447.593 + 3.098(cm) + 9.247(kg) - 4.33(age)

Height = cm (1" = 2.54cm). Weight in kg (2.2# = 1kg). Age in years

The above calculation is then multiplied by an activity factor representing your level of daily activity.

Sedentary = x 1.2

Light = 1.375

Moderate = x 1.55

Active = 1.725

Hard = x 1.9

Example: For A sedentary 140# women, 5’6”, 35 years of age:

RMR = 447.593 + (3.098 x 167.6cm) + (9.247 x 63.6kg) – (4.33 x 35 years) = 1403.4 calories

1403.4 calories x 1.2 = 1,685 calories/day

Reference: ACE



  • The amount of calories a person needs depends upon their gender, weight/height, age and activity level.

Adapted from:


What does 1,600 calories a day look like?

Breakfast (300 calories)¾ cup 100% fruit juice1 slice whole-grain toast1 oz whole-grain breakfast cereal½ cup fat-free milk

Lunch (450 calories)2 oz meat, poultry, or fish2 slices whole-grain bread2 pieces lettuce2 slices tomato½ cup baby carrots½ cup berries or 1 piece of fruit1 cup fat-free milkMid-afternoon Snack (200 calories)5 whole-grain crackers1 tbsp peanut or other nut butter½ fat-free milk

Dinner (500 calories)1 cup vegetable soup2 oz meat, poultry, or fish1 medium sweet potato or white potato½ cup broccoli1 cup fat-free milkLate-night Snack(150 calories)

½ cup low-fat frozen yogurt with ½ cup crushed fruit on top


Nutrient: a substance that animals, plants and people need to live and grow.

Carbohydrates: A nutrient in food that includes sugars, starches, and fibers. Examples of foods that contain carbohydrates include cereals, breads, pasta, rice, fruits and vegetables.

Carbohydrates are the body’s main source of fuel

Other Examples of Nutrients include:

Vitamins:Fat-soluble or water-soluble substances essential in very small amounts for normal growth and activity of the body and obtained naturally from plant and animal foods. Examples of vitamins include Vitamin A, Vitamin C and Vitamin D.

Minerals:Help your body grow, develop, and stay healthy. The best way to get the minerals your body needs is by eating a wide variety of foods. Examples of minerals we get from food include calcium, sodium and potassium.

Fat:Nutrient that supplies energy (calories). It is essential to the body and helps to absorb fat soluble vitamins. Examples of foods sources of fat include oils, nuts, and animal products.

Carbohydrates, fats, and protein all have calories.

Carbohydrates contain 4 Calories per gram

Proteins contain 4 Calories per gram

Fats contain 9 Calories per gram

calories used

How does your body use calories?

  • Body functions – breathing, walking, sitting, sleeping, sweating
  • Exercise – playing sports, running, P.E. class
  • Approximately 3,500 calories = 1 pound
  • Exercise is the most effective way to burn calories
calories used

Adapted from McArdle, W., Katch, F., & Katch, V. (2001). Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance (5th Ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Body weight in pounds divided by 2.2 = body weight in kilograms

calories used1

Exercise burns calories while you are moving but continues to burn calories after the workout is complete

  • Strength exercises burns an additional amount of calories because it builds muscles and muscle tissues burn more calories than body fat
calories used

The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommend:

Key Guidelines for Children and Adolescents

Children and adolescents should do 60 minutes (1 hour) or more of physical activity daily.

    • Aerobic: Most of the 60 or more minutes a day should be either moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, and should include vigorous-intensity physical activity at least 3 days a week.
    • Muscle-strengthening: As part of their 60 or more minutes of daily physical activity, children and adolescents should include muscle-strengthening physical activity on at least 3 days of the week.
    • Bone-strengthening: As part of their 60 or more minutes of daily physical activity, children and adolescents should include bone-strengthening physical activity on at least 3 days of the week.
  • It is important that you participate in physical activities that are appropriate for your age, that you enjoy, and that offer variety.

Reference: 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Summary,



Part of eating healthy includes staying hydrated.

Did you know that some foods contain a high amount of water?

Cucumbers are 96.7% water

Celery95.4% water

Tomatoes 94.5% water

Watermelon 91.5% water

Spinach 91.4% water

Strawberries 91.0% water

Grapefruit 90.5% water

Baby Carrots 90.4% water

Cantaloupe 90.2% water

caloric balance

To remain in balance and maintain a healthy body weight, the calories from the foods you eat must equal the calories that your body uses.

Caloric Balance
think about what you eat

The number of calories eaten are often inaccurate

  • Calories not only come from food, but also from beverages, such as soda and juice
  • Pay attention to the amount that you eat and read food labels
Think about what you eat
reading a food label

Many food products contain multiple servings in a single package

  • The nutrition facts are for a single serving
  • Nutrition facts are based on a 2,000 calorie diet and vary from person to person
  • The % Daily Value shows the percentage of the nutrient eaten as a portion of 2,000 calories per day
Reading a food label
test your knowledge

How many cups of soup are in this one package?

  • If you ate one cup of soup, how many calories would you be eating?
  • If you ate the entire package, how many calories would you be eating?
Test your knowledge

Other tips to stay healthy:DON’T skip breakfastBreakfastkeeps you full throughout the day and prevents you from over-eatingEating in the morning starts up your metabolismGet enough sleepStaying up later promotes more snackingNot being well rested leads to unhealthy decisions


What factors affect what we eat?

  • Religion
  • Ethnic and Cultural Beliefs
  • Family Influences
  • Finances
  • Food Allergy or Food Intolerance
  • Peer Pressure
  • Food Preferences
  • Location - where you live
  • Food Availability

What else can you think of?


What are some examples of unhealthy eating?

  • Eating while watching television, using the computer or playing a game
  • Skipping meals
  • Emotions/Feelings – emotional overeating or not eating
  • Limiting food groups

Can you think of more examples?

food groups


  • Vegetables
  • Protein
  • Dairy
  • Grains
Food Groups:


  • Fruit provides vitamins, minerals and fiber that your body needs.
  • In general, you want to eat a rainbow of colors of fruit in order to get a variety of vitamins and minerals.
  • Fruit has health benefits whether it is fresh, frozen or canned (best canned in fruit juice).

What type of healthy snacks can you make with fruit?

  • A fruit kabob
  • Apple with peanut butter, almond butter or soy nut butter.
  • Trail mix – dried fruit (raisins, pineapple, cranberries) with pretzels and nuts or sunflower seeds
  • Fruit and Yogurt Parfait – use fresh, frozen or canned fruit
  • Fruit smoothie


  • Vegetables provide vitamins, minerals and fiber that your body needs.
  • In general, the darker vegetables have a higher amount of vitamins. For example, spinach vs. iceberg lettuce.
  • Health benefits whether it is fresh, frozen or canned (best canned in fruit juice).

What type of healthy snacks can you make with vegetables?

  • Veggie sticks – bell peppers, broccoli, carrots, celery, cucumbers – with or without dip/low fat salad dressing
  • Veggies and hummus
  • Mixed green salad – use different types of lettuce (romaine, spinach) and veggies – tomatoes, carrots, cucumbers, bell peppers
  • Salsa – with baked tortilla chips
  • Tomato juice
  • Sugar Snap Peas


  • Necessary for the growth and development of hair, muscle, nails and skin.


What type of healthy snacks can you make with protein?

  • Hard boiled/cooked egg
  • Meat roll-up – (sliced turkey and ham rolled up together)
  • Tuna or Chicken Salad
  • Nuts/Seeds
  • Peanut butter with apple slices or celery sticks
  • Hummus (made from chickpeas/garbanzo beans) with baked chips or veggie sticks
  • Bean and cheese burrito


  • Provides vitamins such as vitamin D and calcium. Dairy foods are also provide protein.


What type of healthy snacks can you make with dairy foods?

  • Cheese Stick
  • Smoothie – made with fruit and yogurt or milk
  • Low fat or non fat yogurt
  • Fruit and yogurt parfait – use low fat granola or whole grain cereal (Cheerios, Kix)


  • Grains provide carbohydrates, vitamins and fiber.


What does “whole grain” mean?

Whole grains include the entire grain seed – the bran, the germ and the endosperm.



What type of healthy snacks can you make with grains?

  • Whole grain cereal – dry or with low fat/non fat milk
  • Air popped popcorn or light popcorn
  • Whole Wheat Crackers with cheese
  • Graham crackers w/peanut butter (and jelly)


  • How do you describe healthy eating?

Let’s take a look at some sample menus


Eating Healthy

Breakfast at School

Whole Grain Pancakes w/Syrup

Orange Juice

Fat Free Milk

Lunch at School

Spicy Whole Grain Chicken Patty Sandwich

Celery Sticks w/Ranch Dressing

1% Low Fat Milk

Afterschool Snack

Cheese & Whole Grain Crackers






Green Beans

Bedtime Snack

Whole Grain Cereal with 1% Low Fat Milk


Eating Healthy

Breakfast at Home

1% Low Fat Yogurt with Fruit

Granola Bar


Lunch at School

Mac’n Cheese w/Whole Grain Chicken Bites

Salad w/Ranch Dressing

1% Low Fat Milk

Afterschool Snack

Celery Sticks w/peanut butter



Bedtime Snack

additional resources used

Additional Resourcesused