The Plant Kingdom • Plants are autotrophs that produce their own food. • All plants are eukaryotes. They are organisms with cells that contain nuclei and other cell structures. • For plants to survive on land, they must have ways to obtain water and other materials from their surroundings, retain water, transport materials throughout the plant, support their bodies, and reproduce successfully. • Vascular Tissue – internal transporting tissue in some plants that is made up of tubelike structures.
Nonvascular plants • All nonvascular plants are low-growing plants that lack vascular tissue. • Examples: mosses, liverworts and hornworts
Vascular Plants • Much better suited to life on land than nonvascular plants. Vascular tissue strengthens the plant’s body and transports food and water throughout the plant. • Ferns and their relatives share two major characteristics: they have vascular tissue and use spores to reproduce.
Seed Plants • All seed plants share two characteristics: • They have vascular tissue. • They use seeds to reproduce. • A seed has three important parts: • an embryo • stored food • a seed coat • Leaves capture the sun’s energy and carry out the food-making process of photosynthesis.
Phloem – the vascular tissue through which food moves • Xylem – the vascular tissue water and nutrients travel through • Seed – are structures that contain a young plant inside a protective tissue.
The stemcarries substances between the plant’s roots and leaves. The stem also provides support for the plant and holds up the leaves so they are exposed to the sun. • Roots anchor a plant in the ground and absorb water and nutrients from the soil.
Gymnosperms • Produce naked seeds. • Needlelike or scalelike leaves • Deep-growing root system • Have reproductive structures called cones. • To reproduce: • pollen falls from a male cone onto a female cone • The sperm cell and the egg cell join together in an ovule on the female cone. • This is called pollination
Angiosperms • A plant that produces seeds that are enclosed in a fruit. • They all produce flowers and fruit • Reproduction: • pollen falls on a stigma • The sperm cell and egg cell join together in the flower’s ovule. • The zygote develops into the embryo part of the seed • As the seed develops, the ovary changes and eventually becomes a fruit. • Fruit is a ripened ovary that encloses one or more seeds.
Angiosperms are divided into monocots and dicots. • monocots – angiosperms that have only one seed leaf. Ex: grass, corn, wheat and rice • dicots – produce seeds with two seed leaves. Ex: roses, violets, and dandelions. • cotyledons – a seed leaf that stores food