The Global Marketer’s Mindset The typical context for globalized marketing is not the usual “close to customer” mindset. Rather, the point is usually to coordinate marketing activities across a wide variety of markets where the firm does business. A top-down approach easily leads to insensitivity towards local customers and local requirements, and conflicts with local subsidiaries.
The Global Marketer: Customer-oriented? • Selling orientation – sell what we make, the product line is given. • Standardization of products as much as possible. • Coordination via new reporting lines to make sure everyone is on board. • Centralization of the marketing effort to make sure all speak the same language.
The Global Marketer’s Mindset • Because of the natural inclination to ignore local variations in customer preferences and local requirements, global marketing can easily lead to mis-positioned products and inappropriate promotional appeals. • It can also, of course, lead to local resistance and animosity, not good considering anti-globalization and anti-Americanism sentiments. • The key is to strike the optimal balance between local adaptation and global efficiency.
Segmentation-Targeting-Positioning • The typical way of approaching global marketing strategy is similar to the so-called S-T-P framework: • 1. Segmentation – the splitting up of the total market into segments of more homogeneous subgroups. • 2. Targeting – the selection of which one(s) of these subgroups the company should market its product to. • 3. Positioning – exactly how the company should present the product to the target market(s) so its perception is most advantageous relative to competition.
Two-Stage Global Segmentation • It is common to distinguish two stages of global segmentation • 1. Macro-segmentation – the division of a number of countries into subgroups of more similar clusters • 2. Micro-segmentation – the identification of local segments which are similar across the countries in a cluster. • The micro-segmentation techniques used in domestic markets are also useful in global segmentation.
Micro-Segmentation TYPICAL SEGMENTATION CRITERIA • Economic - the most basic local segmentation criterion is still economic development • Demographic - the age and family structure in different countries play an important role in determining global segments • Culture - people care about their identify even though a lot has been said in the media about the emergence of global segments of people • Benefits - the most clear cut segmentation criteria focus on the benefits sought • Lifestyle – consumers start developing their own lifestyle with buying behavior involving more than simple necessities
Micro-Segmentation WHICH CRITERIA SHOULD YOU USE TO SPLIT UP THE MARKET? • Useful segmentation criteria must accomplish three goals: • Should show us what influences the segment’s buying behavior, both consumption level and choice between competing brands • Should be reflected in published data so that the size of the segment can be calculated • Should help identify the media through which marketers can communicate with the segment
Micro-Segmentation WHEN DO YOU HAVE A GOOD SEGMENTATION SCHEME? • Useful market segments possess these characteristics: • IDENTIFIABLE – what distinguishes them? • MEASURABLE – how many belong to each segment? • REACHABLE – how to distribute to, communicate to, each segment? • ABLE TO BUY – can they afford it? • WILLING TO BUY – do they want it?
Macro-Segmentation MACROSEGMENTATION – clustering of countries on the basis of common characteristics deemed to be important for marketing purposes, e.g. data on: • Population size • Population character • Disposable income levels • Educational background • Primary languages • Level of development • Rate of growth in GNP • Infrastructure • Political affiliation
Macro-Segmentation on Standard of Living and Religion 0 • SWE .9 • DEN NOR • • UKI FIN• .8 • AUS • NEZ ,7 • SWI .6 Factor III Standard of Living • NET • SOT .5 • GER • ISR • AUT .4 • BEL PUE • • JAP • FRA • CHI .3 • VEN • MAC .2 • SPA • BRA .1 PHI • TUR • • IND ITA• • PER • MEX 0 • COL • PAK • ARG • THI Protestant -.1 Catholic -.2 -.1 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 Factor VI Religion
Macro-Segmentation Based on Lifestyle 6 PAN-EUROPEAN LIFESTYLE SEGMENTS TRADITIONALIST 18% HOMEBODY 14% RATIONALIST 23% PLEASURIST 17% STRIVER 15% TRENDSETTER 13% Relative size of segments in percent, of the European Market, as developed by the RISC research agency
Targeting Segments • The choice of which countries and which segment(s) to target involves an analysis of projected profitability over the planning horizon. • The basic computation involves forecasting sales in a segment and the market share that the firm can expect to achieve. These techniques were covered in the forecasting chapter (no.4). • Predicting competitive reactions is also necessary, especially if the target segment is likely to be brand loyal. • The choice of target countries should also consider the tradeoff between focus and diversification.
Targeting Segments • Diversification versus Focus Strategy • Diversification Strategy • In developing a global strategy, some companies make a conscious effort to be a player in different countries and different market segments. Difficulties in one market segment or country can be offset by gains elsewhere. • Focus Strategy • Markets and segments can be given more attention and markets positions fortified. This is particularly advantageous when the country or segment competitive rivalry is intense (see hyper-competition in chapter 2, for example).
Global Product Positioning • Product Positioning involves using the marketing mix (the 4Ps) to present the product to the selected target market(s) so that it is perceived in the most favorable way relative to preferences and competition. • To identify the optimal position, global marketing draws on the same techniques as domestic marketers in mapping out a visual representation of how the customers view the competing brands on the market. • This visual mapping is usually called “perceptual space” or, more commonly, the “product space.”
U.S. Product Space of Autos 1968 SPORTY Jaguar Sedan Ford Mustang AMC Javelin Ideal point for subject I Plymouth Barracuda Mercury Cougar Ford Thunderbird V8 LUXURIOUS Chevrolet Corvair Lincoln Continental Ideal point for subject J Chrysler Imperial Buick Le Sabre Ford Falcon
Global Product Positioning Four sets of data to construct the product space Salient Attributes - data on what attributes a customer looks for in a product Evoked Set - identifying what brands are considered by the buyer Attribute Ratings - how the individual rates the brands in the evoked set on salient attributes Preferences - how the brands rank in terms of overall preferences
Product Space with Segment Sizes Has a touch of class. Distinguished looking Lincoln Porsche Conservative looking Cadillac 4 5 Sporty looking. BMW Chrysler Mercedes 2 Buick Pontiac Oldsmobile Chevrolet Datsun Ford Appeals to older people 1 Toyota Fun to drive. 3 Dodge Plymouth VW Very practical. Gives good gas mileage.
Global Product Positioning THERE ARE THREE DIFFERENT EFFECTS ON BUYERS WHEN A GLOBALLY STANDARDIZED PRODUCT OR BRAND IS INTRODUCED ON A LOCAL MARKET: • 1. THE NEW BRAND SIMPLY TARGETS ONE UNTAPPED SEGMENT. • 2. THE PRODUCT SPACE IS ALTERED, BY ADDING DIMENSIONS OR EXTENDING ENDPOINTS. • 3. BUYER PREFERENCES ARE CHANGED. IN PRACTICE, ALL THREE PROCESSES ARE OFTEN AT WORK SIMULTANEOUSLY.
Global Product Positioning • IT IS RARE THAT CUSTOMERS’ PERCEPTIONS REMAIN UNCHANGED WHEN A GLOBALLY STANDARDIZED PRODUCT ENTERS THE MARKET. • EXTENDED PRODUCT SPACETHIS OCCURSWHEN GLOBALLY STANDARDIZED PRODUCTS OFFER MORE OF THE SALIENT FEATURES DESIRED. THE NEW FEATURES TEND TO ENLARGE THE SPACE WHICH DEFINE THE PRODUCT. (EX: MORE MEMORY IN PCs) • ADDED DIMENSIONS THIS OCCURS WHEN THE GLOBALLY STANDARDIZED PRODUCT OFFERS IMPORTANT NEW FEATURES (EX: CAMERA ON A CELL-PHONE)
Honda Accord Extends the Product Space ECONOMY Overall Rating Honda Accord BMW 320i VW Rabbit Toyota Celica Datsun 200SX Audi 4000 Mazda PERFORMANCE Chrysler K-car Chevrolet Citation Ford Mustang
Global Product Positioning • WHEN PRODUCTS ARE STANDARDIZED AND NOT ADAPTED TO THE PARTICULAR MARKET, THEY ARE OFTEN “MISPOSITIONED” (NOT HITTING THE TARGET BULLSEYE). • THERE ARE THREE REASONS WHY CONSUMERS MIGHT STILL BUY MISPOSITIONED PRODUCTS: • BRAND IMAGE • COUNTRY OF ORIGIN • LOWER PRICE
Brand Image • MISPOSITIONED PRODUCTS CAN BE ATTRACTIVE TO POTENTIAL CUSTOMERS BECAUSE OF BRAND IMAGE AND STATUS. GLOBAL BRANDS OFTEN DO BETTER THAN LOCAL BRANDS THAT MAY BE BETTER SUITED TO CUSTOMER NEEDS FOR THAT AND OTHER REASONS: • CONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION --LET EVERYONE SEE WHAT YOU BUY AND HOW MUCH YOU BUY. • LOWER PERCEIVED RISK AND COGNITIVE DISSONANCE -- WHEN GIVING A GIFT, FOR EXAMPLE
Country-of-Origin • WHERE A PRODUCT OR BRAND COMES FROM OFTEN COUNTS A GREAT DEAL WITH CONSUMERS. • COUNTRY-OF-ORIGIN EFFECTDEALS WITH QUALITY PERCEPTIONS OF PRODUCTS. THIS EFFECT DIFFERS BY PRODUCT CATEGORY. ALSO, THE QUALITY LEVEL AT WHICH A COUNTRY PRODUCES IS FACTORED IN. • COUNTRY-OF-ORIGIN BIASCUSTOMERS TEND TO OVERSTATE THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVES OF PRODUCT ATTRIBUTES AND THIS CAN CAUSE A BIAS TOWARDS PRODUCTS FROM A GIVEN COUNTRY.
Lower Price • THROUGH A REDUCED PRICE, A CUSTOMER IS OFTEN INDUCED TO BUY A MISPOSITIONED BRAND BECAUSE THEY FEEL THAT THEY AR GETTING A “GOOD DEAL.” • HOWEVER, THIS CAN BACKFIRE ON THE MARKETER, SINCE THE PRICE PAID GRADUALLY LOSES SALIENCE, WHILE THE LESS DESIRABLE BRAND STAYS AS A REMINDER.
Global S-T-P Strategies • Market Segmentation Cases • Similar Segment • The target segment is the same across countries • Different Segment • The target segment differs across countries • Product Positioning Dimensions • Similar Positioning • Indicates a positioning which is the same across countries • Different Positioning • Indicates that the positioning theme is adapted across countries.
Global S-T-P Strategies Local Micro-Segment Similar Different IKEA Nike Similar Mobile phones Positioning Levi’s Volvo Different Pampers Honda Prelude