Standardized testing
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Standardized Testing Norm-referenced tests : are standardized, have information about reliability and validity, and can be used to compare an individual or groups performance on a test to individuals or groups in the standardization population, often called a “formal” test.

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Standardized Testing

  • Norm-referenced tests: are standardized, have information about reliability and validity, and can be used to compare an individual or groups performance on a test to individuals or groups in the standardization population, often called a “formal” test.

  • Criterion-referenced tests: are not standardized, often do not have reliability and validity data, a person or group is compared to a fixed standard, often labeled an “informal” test.

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Basic Measurement Terms

  • Scales of Measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio

  • Measures of Central Tendency: mean, median, mode

  • Measures of Dispersion: range, variance, standard deviation

  • Normal Curve:a common type of distribution

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Basic Measurement Terms continued

  • Correlations: tell us about the degree of relationship between two variables, including the strength and direction of the relationship.

  • Multiple Correlation: a statistical technique for determining the relationship between one variable and several other variables

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Basic Measurement Terms (3)

  • Types of Scores:

    Percentile rank-derived scores that permit us to determine an individual’s position relative to the sample.

    Standard scores- raw scores that have been transformed to have a designated mean and standard deviation.

    Grade equivalent or age-equivalent scores-average score obtained on a test by different groups of children who vary in age or grade placement.

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Basic Measurement Terms (4)

Normal curve equivalents- standard scores with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 21.06

Stanines-a single digit scoring system with a mean of 5 and a SD of 2. (1-9)

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Interpreting Test Scores

  • Reliability: the consistency of measurements

    Test-retest reliability - consistency of scores on two separate administrations of a test.

    Alternate-form reliability- consistency of scores on two equivalent forms of a test.

    Split-half reliability – degree to which individual test items are related or measure the same abilities.

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Interpreting Test Scores continued

  • True score: hypothetical mean of all scores if test were administered many times.

  • Standard error of measurement: estimate of the amount of error associated with the obtained score.

  • Confidence interval or precision range: a range within which true scores might be found.

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Interpreting Test Scores (3)

  • Validity: the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure.

    Content validity -whether the items on a test

    represent the domain that the test is supposed to


    Criterion-related validity- the relationship

    between test scores and some type of criterion or


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Interpreting Test Scores (4)

Concurrent validity and predictive validity –are test scores related to a current criterion or future performance on a relevant criterion?

Construct validity – the extent to which a test measures a psychological construct.

  • The relationship between reliability and validity: to be valid, a test must be reliable.

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Types of Standardized Tests


  • Screening, Diagnostic, Placement

  • Group Versus Individual

  • Multiple Skill Versus Single Skill

  • Formal Versus Informal

    Function or Domain

  • Achievement

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Types of Standardized Tests continued

  • Aptitude-academic, vocational, leisure

  • Cognitive ability/intellectual ability-

  • Social/ Emotional-objective versus projective

  • Behavioral- rating scales, observations

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Major Issues in Assessment

  • What is the difference between assessment and testing?

  • How are tests being used in the United States: readiness, national progress, minimal competency, accreditation

  • Advantages in taking tests: bias, culture-fair tests.

  • Coaching and test-taking skills: special training, familiarity with procedures, study skills

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New Directions in Assessment

National, State and Local Levels:

  • Assessing learning potential: LPAD, ELP, etc.

  • Authentic assessment: performance based, portfolios, constructed response formats.

  • Curriculum-based assessment and measurement.