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Standardized Testing Norm-referenced tests : are standardized, have information about reliability and validity, and can be used to compare an individual or groups performance on a test to individuals or groups in the standardization population, often called a “formal” test.

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standardized testing
Standardized Testing
  • Norm-referenced tests: are standardized, have information about reliability and validity, and can be used to compare an individual or groups performance on a test to individuals or groups in the standardization population, often called a “formal” test.
  • Criterion-referenced tests: are not standardized, often do not have reliability and validity data, a person or group is compared to a fixed standard, often labeled an “informal” test.
basic measurement terms
Basic Measurement Terms
  • Scales of Measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
  • Measures of Central Tendency: mean, median, mode
  • Measures of Dispersion: range, variance, standard deviation
  • Normal Curve:a common type of distribution
basic measurement terms continued
Basic Measurement Terms continued
  • Correlations: tell us about the degree of relationship between two variables, including the strength and direction of the relationship.
  • Multiple Correlation: a statistical technique for determining the relationship between one variable and several other variables
basic measurement terms 3
Basic Measurement Terms (3)
  • Types of Scores:

Percentile rank-derived scores that permit us to determine an individual’s position relative to the sample.

Standard scores- raw scores that have been transformed to have a designated mean and standard deviation.

Grade equivalent or age-equivalent scores-average score obtained on a test by different groups of children who vary in age or grade placement.

basic measurement terms 4
Basic Measurement Terms (4)

Normal curve equivalents- standard scores with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 21.06

Stanines-a single digit scoring system with a mean of 5 and a SD of 2. (1-9)

interpreting test scores
Interpreting Test Scores
  • Reliability: the consistency of measurements

Test-retest reliability - consistency of scores on two separate administrations of a test.

Alternate-form reliability- consistency of scores on two equivalent forms of a test.

Split-half reliability – degree to which individual test items are related or measure the same abilities.

interpreting test scores continued
Interpreting Test Scores continued
  • True score: hypothetical mean of all scores if test were administered many times.
  • Standard error of measurement: estimate of the amount of error associated with the obtained score.
  • Confidence interval or precision range: a range within which true scores might be found.
interpreting test scores 3
Interpreting Test Scores (3)
  • Validity: the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure.

Content validity -whether the items on a test

represent the domain that the test is supposed to


Criterion-related validity- the relationship

between test scores and some type of criterion or


interpreting test scores 4
Interpreting Test Scores (4)

Concurrent validity and predictive validity –are test scores related to a current criterion or future performance on a relevant criterion?

Construct validity – the extent to which a test measures a psychological construct.

  • The relationship between reliability and validity: to be valid, a test must be reliable.
types of standardized tests
Types of Standardized Tests


  • Screening, Diagnostic, Placement
  • Group Versus Individual
  • Multiple Skill Versus Single Skill
  • Formal Versus Informal

Function or Domain

  • Achievement
types of standardized tests continued
Types of Standardized Tests continued
  • Aptitude-academic, vocational, leisure
  • Cognitive ability/intellectual ability-
  • Social/ Emotional-objective versus projective
  • Behavioral- rating scales, observations
major issues in assessment
Major Issues in Assessment
  • What is the difference between assessment and testing?
  • How are tests being used in the United States: readiness, national progress, minimal competency, accreditation
  • Advantages in taking tests: bias, culture-fair tests.
  • Coaching and test-taking skills: special training, familiarity with procedures, study skills
new directions in assessment
New Directions in Assessment

National, State and Local Levels:

  • Assessing learning potential: LPAD, ELP, etc.
  • Authentic assessment: performance based, portfolios, constructed response formats.
  • Curriculum-based assessment and measurement.