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Standardized Testing Chapter 14

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  1. Standardized TestingChapter 14 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  2. Overview • Evaluation, Measurement and Assessment • What Do Test Scores Mean? • Types of Standardized Tests • Issues in Standardized Testing • New Directions in Standardized Testing Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  3. Concept Map for Chapter 14 New Directions in Standardized Testing Evaluation, Measurement, & Assessment Standardized Testing What Do Test Scores Mean? Issues in Standardized Testing Types of Standardized Tests Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  4. Evaluation, Measurement and Assessment Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  5. Basic Terminology • Evaluation: a judgment • Measurement: a number • Assessment: procedure to gather information • Norm-referenced test • Criterion-referenced testing Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  6. Norm-referenced General ability Range of ability Large groups Compares people to people Selecting top candidates Criterion-referenced Mastery Basic skills Prerequisites Affective Psychomotor Grouping for instruction Comparing Norm- & Criterion- Referenced Tests Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  7. Criterion- or Norm-Referenced? • Driver’s test • Standardized achievement test • Ed Psych test • Bar exam • Nursing boards • IQ test Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  8. What Do Test Scores Mean? Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  9. Basic Concepts • Standardized test • Norming sample • Frequency distributions • Central tendency • Mean • Median • Mode / bimodal • Range • Standard deviation Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  10. Frequency Distribution Histogram Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  11. Calculations: What Do the Numbers Mean? Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  12. Mean: The Arithmetic Average • Add up all the scores • Divide the total by the number of scores Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  13. Median • The middle score • **Scores must be in rank order** • Count up or down to the middle score • Even number of scores? • Average the two middle scores Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  14. Mode • The most frequently occurring score • Look at the frequency distribution • Identify which score occurs most often • Bimodal distributions Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  15. Range • Report the high and low score or • Report the difference between the highest and lowest score Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  16. Standard Deviation • Indicates how much the scores vary from the mean • Based on the mean score • The average of the deviation from the average score Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  17. Calculating Standard Deviation Calculate the mean: c Subtract the mean from each score: (c-c) Square each difference: (c-c)2 Add all the squared differences:S(c-c)2 Divide by the S(c-c)2 number of scores: N Find the S(c-c)2 square root: N Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  18. Sample Problems Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  19. Reading 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 Arithmetic 76 78 77 71 75 79 72 73 74 Calculate the mean, median, mode, range, and standard deviation for the following sets of scores: Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  20. Reading c c-c (c-c)2 95 20 400 90 15 225 85 10 100 80 5 25 75 0 0 70 -5 25 65 -10 100 60 -15 225 55 -20 400 S(c-c)2 = 1500 Arithmetic c c-c (c-c)2 76 +1 1 78 +3 9 77 +2 4 71 -4 16 75 0 0 79 +4 16 72 -3 9 73 -2 4 74 -1 1 S(c-c)2 = 60 Calculations Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  21. Reading S(c-c)2 =166.67 N S(c-c) 2 N Arithmetic S(c-c)2 =6.67 N S(c-c)2 N = 2.58 Calculations continued =12.91 Standard deviations Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  22. Reading Mean = 75 Mode = none Median = 75 Range = 40 Standard deviation = 12.91 Arithmetic Mean = 75 Mode = none Median = 75 Range = 8 Standard deviation = 2.58 Completed Calculations Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  23. Reflection Questions • Based on the calculations in the previous slides, how much does the mean score tell you about the performance of the whole class? • How much do median and modal scores tell a teacher? • How can you use a standard deviation to help you in planning for a particular class? Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  24. Normal Distributions • The “bell curve” • Mean, median, mode all at the center of the curve • 50% of scores above the mean • 50% of scores below the mean • 68% of scores within one standard deviation from the mean • See Figure 14.2, Woolfolk, p. 528 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  25. Normal Distribution with Standard Deviations Percent of the population 34% 34% 2% 2% 14% 14% 0 -3SD -2SD -1SD +1SD +2SD +3SD Standard Deviation Units Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  26. Types of Scores • Percentile rank • Grade-equivalent • Standard scores • z scores • T scores • Stanine scores • Standard scores based on standard deviation Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  27. Interpreting Test Scores • Reliability • True score • Standard error • Confidence intervals • Validity • Content-related • Criterion-related • Construct-related See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 534 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  28. Types of Standardized Tests Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  29. Achievement Tests • Measure previous learning • The standardized scores reported: • NS: National Stanine Score • NCE: National Curve Equivalent • SS: Scale Score • NCR: Raw score • NP: National Percentile • Range: Confidence interval set at 95% • See Figure 14.5, Woolfolk, p. 535 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  30. Diagnostic Tests • Identify strengths and weaknesses • Most often used by trained professionals • Elementary teachers may use for reading, math Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  31. Aptitude Tests • Measure abilities • Used to predict future performance • SAT/PSAT • ACT/SCAT • IQ and aptitude • Discussing test scores with families Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  32. Issues in Standardized Testing Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  33. Issues in Testing • High stakes testing • Uses of testing • Readiness • Minimum and World-Class Standards • High school competency • National standards • Content standards • Performance standards • Opportunity standards • World-Class Standards SeePoint▼Counterpoint, Woolfolk, p. 541 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  34. More Issues in Testing • Testing teachers: Praxis Series • Bias and fairness • Culture-fair & culture-free testing • Coaching & test taking skills • See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 545 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  35. New Directions in Standardized Testing • Learning potential • Authentic assessments • Constructed response formats Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  36. Reflection Questions • How would you determine the validity of a portfolio assessment for high school students? • How would you determine the reliability of science projects as an assessment process for 5th graders? • What testing bias have you encountered in your educational process? Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  37. Summary • Evaluation, Measurement and Assessment • What Do Test Scores Mean? • Types of Standardized Tests • Issues in Standardized Testing • New Directions in Standardized Testing Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  38. Review Questions • Distinguish among evaluation, measurement, and assessment. • Distinguish between norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests. • Describe the key features of a standardized test. • What are mean, median, mode, and standard deviation? Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  39. Review Questions • Describe different kinds of scores. • What is test reliability? • What is test validity? • What are three kinds of standardized tests? Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  40. Review Questions • What are some current issues in testing? • Can students become better test-takers? • What is learning potential assessment? • What is authentic assessment? Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  41. End Chapter 14 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon