Standardized Testing Chapter 14

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## Standardized Testing Chapter 14

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**Standardized TestingChapter 14**Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Overview**• Evaluation, Measurement and Assessment • What Do Test Scores Mean? • Types of Standardized Tests • Issues in Standardized Testing • New Directions in Standardized Testing Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Concept Map for Chapter 14**New Directions in Standardized Testing Evaluation, Measurement, & Assessment Standardized Testing What Do Test Scores Mean? Issues in Standardized Testing Types of Standardized Tests Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Evaluation, Measurement and Assessment**Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Basic Terminology**• Evaluation: a judgment • Measurement: a number • Assessment: procedure to gather information • Norm-referenced test • Criterion-referenced testing Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Norm-referenced**General ability Range of ability Large groups Compares people to people Selecting top candidates Criterion-referenced Mastery Basic skills Prerequisites Affective Psychomotor Grouping for instruction Comparing Norm- & Criterion- Referenced Tests Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Criterion- or Norm-Referenced?**• Driver’s test • Standardized achievement test • Ed Psych test • Bar exam • Nursing boards • IQ test Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**What Do Test Scores Mean?**Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Basic Concepts**• Standardized test • Norming sample • Frequency distributions • Central tendency • Mean • Median • Mode / bimodal • Range • Standard deviation Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Frequency Distribution Histogram**Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Calculations: What Do the Numbers Mean?**Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Mean: The Arithmetic Average**• Add up all the scores • Divide the total by the number of scores Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Median**• The middle score • **Scores must be in rank order** • Count up or down to the middle score • Even number of scores? • Average the two middle scores Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Mode**• The most frequently occurring score • Look at the frequency distribution • Identify which score occurs most often • Bimodal distributions Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Range**• Report the high and low score or • Report the difference between the highest and lowest score Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Standard Deviation**• Indicates how much the scores vary from the mean • Based on the mean score • The average of the deviation from the average score Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Calculating Standard Deviation**Calculate the mean: c Subtract the mean from each score: (c-c) Square each difference: (c-c)2 Add all the squared differences:S(c-c)2 Divide by the S(c-c)2 number of scores: N Find the S(c-c)2 square root: N Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Sample Problems**Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Reading**95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 Arithmetic 76 78 77 71 75 79 72 73 74 Calculate the mean, median, mode, range, and standard deviation for the following sets of scores: Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Reading**c c-c (c-c)2 95 20 400 90 15 225 85 10 100 80 5 25 75 0 0 70 -5 25 65 -10 100 60 -15 225 55 -20 400 S(c-c)2 = 1500 Arithmetic c c-c (c-c)2 76 +1 1 78 +3 9 77 +2 4 71 -4 16 75 0 0 79 +4 16 72 -3 9 73 -2 4 74 -1 1 S(c-c)2 = 60 Calculations Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Reading**S(c-c)2 =166.67 N S(c-c) 2 N Arithmetic S(c-c)2 =6.67 N S(c-c)2 N = 2.58 Calculations continued =12.91 Standard deviations Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Reading**Mean = 75 Mode = none Median = 75 Range = 40 Standard deviation = 12.91 Arithmetic Mean = 75 Mode = none Median = 75 Range = 8 Standard deviation = 2.58 Completed Calculations Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Reflection Questions**• Based on the calculations in the previous slides, how much does the mean score tell you about the performance of the whole class? • How much do median and modal scores tell a teacher? • How can you use a standard deviation to help you in planning for a particular class? Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Normal Distributions**• The “bell curve” • Mean, median, mode all at the center of the curve • 50% of scores above the mean • 50% of scores below the mean • 68% of scores within one standard deviation from the mean • See Figure 14.2, Woolfolk, p. 528 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Normal Distribution with Standard Deviations**Percent of the population 34% 34% 2% 2% 14% 14% 0 -3SD -2SD -1SD +1SD +2SD +3SD Standard Deviation Units Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Types of Scores**• Percentile rank • Grade-equivalent • Standard scores • z scores • T scores • Stanine scores • Standard scores based on standard deviation Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Interpreting Test Scores**• Reliability • True score • Standard error • Confidence intervals • Validity • Content-related • Criterion-related • Construct-related See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 534 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Types of Standardized Tests**Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Achievement Tests**• Measure previous learning • The standardized scores reported: • NS: National Stanine Score • NCE: National Curve Equivalent • SS: Scale Score • NCR: Raw score • NP: National Percentile • Range: Confidence interval set at 95% • See Figure 14.5, Woolfolk, p. 535 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Diagnostic Tests**• Identify strengths and weaknesses • Most often used by trained professionals • Elementary teachers may use for reading, math Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Aptitude Tests**• Measure abilities • Used to predict future performance • SAT/PSAT • ACT/SCAT • IQ and aptitude • Discussing test scores with families Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Issues in Standardized Testing**Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Issues in Testing**• High stakes testing • Uses of testing • Readiness • Minimum and World-Class Standards • High school competency • National standards • Content standards • Performance standards • Opportunity standards • World-Class Standards SeePoint▼Counterpoint, Woolfolk, p. 541 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**More Issues in Testing**• Testing teachers: Praxis Series • Bias and fairness • Culture-fair & culture-free testing • Coaching & test taking skills • See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 545 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**New Directions in Standardized Testing**• Learning potential • Authentic assessments • Constructed response formats Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Reflection Questions**• How would you determine the validity of a portfolio assessment for high school students? • How would you determine the reliability of science projects as an assessment process for 5th graders? • What testing bias have you encountered in your educational process? Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Summary**• Evaluation, Measurement and Assessment • What Do Test Scores Mean? • Types of Standardized Tests • Issues in Standardized Testing • New Directions in Standardized Testing Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Review Questions**• Distinguish among evaluation, measurement, and assessment. • Distinguish between norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests. • Describe the key features of a standardized test. • What are mean, median, mode, and standard deviation? Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Review Questions**• Describe different kinds of scores. • What is test reliability? • What is test validity? • What are three kinds of standardized tests? Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**Review Questions**• What are some current issues in testing? • Can students become better test-takers? • What is learning potential assessment? • What is authentic assessment? Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon**End Chapter 14**Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon