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Standardized Testing Chapter 14. Overview. Evaluation, Measurement and Assessment What Do Test Scores Mean? Types of Standardized Tests Issues in Standardized Testing New Directions in Standardized Testing. Concept Map for Chapter 14. New Directions in Standardized Testing. Evaluation,

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standardized testing chapter 14
Standardized TestingChapter 14

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

overview
Overview
  • Evaluation, Measurement and Assessment
  • What Do Test Scores Mean?
  • Types of Standardized Tests
  • Issues in Standardized Testing
  • New Directions in Standardized Testing

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

concept map for chapter 14
Concept Map for Chapter 14

New Directions

in Standardized

Testing

Evaluation,

Measurement, &

Assessment

Standardized

Testing

What Do Test

Scores Mean?

Issues in

Standardized

Testing

Types of

Standardized

Tests

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

evaluation measurement and assessment
Evaluation, Measurement and Assessment

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

basic terminology
Basic Terminology
  • Evaluation: a judgment
  • Measurement: a number
  • Assessment: procedure to gather information
  • Norm-referenced test
  • Criterion-referenced testing

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

comparing norm criterion referenced tests
Norm-referenced

General ability

Range of ability

Large groups

Compares people to people

Selecting top candidates

Criterion-referenced

Mastery

Basic skills

Prerequisites

Affective

Psychomotor

Grouping for instruction

Comparing Norm- & Criterion- Referenced Tests

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

criterion or norm referenced
Criterion- or Norm-Referenced?
  • Driver’s test
  • Standardized achievement test
  • Ed Psych test
  • Bar exam
  • Nursing boards
  • IQ test

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

what do test scores mean
What Do Test Scores Mean?

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

basic concepts
Basic Concepts
  • Standardized test
  • Norming sample
  • Frequency distributions
  • Central tendency
    • Mean
    • Median
    • Mode / bimodal
    • Range
    • Standard deviation

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

frequency distribution histogram
Frequency Distribution Histogram

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

calculations what do the numbers mean
Calculations: What Do the Numbers Mean?

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

mean the arithmetic average
Mean: The Arithmetic Average
  • Add up all the scores
  • Divide the total by the number of scores

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

median
Median
  • The middle score
    • **Scores must be in rank order**
    • Count up or down to the middle score
    • Even number of scores?
    • Average the two middle scores

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

slide14
Mode
  • The most frequently occurring score
  • Look at the frequency distribution
  • Identify which score occurs most often
  • Bimodal distributions

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

range
Range
  • Report the high and low score or
  • Report the difference between the highest and lowest score

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

standard deviation
Standard Deviation
  • Indicates how much the scores vary from the mean
  • Based on the mean score
  • The average of the deviation from the average score

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

slide17

Calculating Standard Deviation

Calculate the mean: c

Subtract the mean

from each score: (c-c)

Square each difference: (c-c)2

Add all the squared differences:S(c-c)2

Divide by the S(c-c)2

number of scores: N

Find the S(c-c)2

square root: N

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

sample problems
Sample Problems

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

calculate the mean median mode range and standard deviation for the following sets of scores
Reading

95

90

85

80

75

70

65

60

55

Arithmetic

76

78

77

71

75

79

72

73

74

Calculate the mean, median, mode, range, and standard deviation for the following sets of scores:

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

calculations
Reading

c c-c (c-c)2

95 20 400

90 15 225

85 10 100

80 5 25

75 0 0

70 -5 25

65 -10 100

60 -15 225

55 -20 400

S(c-c)2 = 1500

Arithmetic

c c-c (c-c)2

76 +1 1

78 +3 9

77 +2 4

71 -4 16

75 0 0

79 +4 16

72 -3 9

73 -2 4

74 -1 1

S(c-c)2 = 60

Calculations

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

calculations continued
Reading

S(c-c)2

=166.67 N

S(c-c) 2

N

Arithmetic

S(c-c)2

=6.67

N

S(c-c)2

N = 2.58

Calculations continued

=12.91

Standard deviations

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

completed calculations
Reading

Mean = 75

Mode = none

Median = 75

Range = 40

Standard deviation = 12.91

Arithmetic

Mean = 75

Mode = none

Median = 75

Range = 8

Standard deviation = 2.58

Completed Calculations

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

reflection questions
Reflection Questions
  • Based on the calculations in the previous slides, how much does the mean score tell you about the performance of the whole class?
  • How much do median and modal scores tell a teacher?
  • How can you use a standard deviation to help you in planning for a particular class?

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

normal distributions
Normal Distributions
  • The “bell curve”
  • Mean, median, mode all at the center of the curve
  • 50% of scores above the mean
  • 50% of scores below the mean
  • 68% of scores within one standard deviation from the mean
  • See Figure 14.2, Woolfolk, p. 528

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

slide25

Normal Distribution with Standard Deviations

Percent of the

population

34%

34%

2%

2%

14%

14%

0

-3SD

-2SD

-1SD

+1SD

+2SD

+3SD

Standard Deviation Units

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

types of scores
Types of Scores
  • Percentile rank
  • Grade-equivalent
  • Standard scores
    • z scores
    • T scores
    • Stanine scores
  • Standard scores based on standard deviation

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

interpreting test scores
Interpreting Test Scores
  • Reliability
  • True score
  • Standard error
  • Confidence intervals
  • Validity
    • Content-related
    • Criterion-related
    • Construct-related

See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 534

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

types of standardized tests
Types of Standardized Tests

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

achievement tests
Achievement Tests
  • Measure previous learning
  • The standardized scores reported:
    • NS: National Stanine Score
    • NCE: National Curve Equivalent
    • SS: Scale Score
    • NCR: Raw score
    • NP: National Percentile
    • Range: Confidence interval set at 95%
  • See Figure 14.5, Woolfolk, p. 535

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

diagnostic tests
Diagnostic Tests
  • Identify strengths and weaknesses
  • Most often used by trained professionals
  • Elementary teachers may use for reading, math

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

aptitude tests
Aptitude Tests
  • Measure abilities
  • Used to predict future performance
  • SAT/PSAT
  • ACT/SCAT
  • IQ and aptitude
  • Discussing test scores with families

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

issues in standardized testing
Issues in Standardized Testing

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

issues in testing
Issues in Testing
  • High stakes testing
  • Uses of testing
    • Readiness
  • Minimum and World-Class Standards
    • High school competency
    • National standards
    • Content standards
    • Performance standards
    • Opportunity standards
    • World-Class Standards

SeePoint▼Counterpoint, Woolfolk, p. 541

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

more issues in testing
More Issues in Testing
  • Testing teachers: Praxis Series
  • Bias and fairness
    • Culture-fair & culture-free testing
  • Coaching & test taking skills
  • See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 545

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

new directions in standardized testing
New Directions in Standardized Testing
  • Learning potential
  • Authentic assessments
  • Constructed response formats

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

reflection questions36
Reflection Questions
  • How would you determine the validity of a portfolio assessment for high school students?
  • How would you determine the reliability of science projects as an assessment process for 5th graders?
  • What testing bias have you encountered in your educational process?

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

summary
Summary
  • Evaluation, Measurement and Assessment
  • What Do Test Scores Mean?
  • Types of Standardized Tests
  • Issues in Standardized Testing
  • New Directions in Standardized Testing

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

review questions
Review Questions
  • Distinguish among evaluation, measurement, and assessment.
  • Distinguish between norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests.
  • Describe the key features of a standardized test.
  • What are mean, median, mode, and standard deviation?

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

review questions39
Review Questions
  • Describe different kinds of scores.
  • What is test reliability?
  • What is test validity?
  • What are three kinds of standardized tests?

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

review questions40
Review Questions
  • What are some current issues in testing?
  • Can students become better test-takers?
  • What is learning potential assessment?
  • What is authentic assessment?

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

end chapter 14
End Chapter 14

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon