Literacy Practice: Promoting Content Area Reading Designed by Brenda Stephenson The University of Tennessee
At the end of this presentation students should: • Define the concepts for promoting reading comprehension through content area reading materials. • Identify ways of using content area reading materials to promote reading comprehension in the classroom. • List materials and resources available to accomplish this practice.
…refers to the challenge of reading in the academic areas such as science, social studies, mathematics, literature, and the arts. Content Area Reading
Content Area Reading • Scaffoldingprovides a systematic approach to address the challenges of Content Area Reading.
Content Area Reading:Scaffolding • instructional technique using teacher modeling to introduce the desired learning strategy or task, then gradually shifts responsibility to the students • Scaffolding Graph
Content Area Reading:Scaffolding • supports students before,during, and after they read. • enables students to accomplish what is normally beyond their abilities. • provides enough help so students can succeed with a task that otherwise would be impossible. (Graves & Graves, 1994)
Video Clip • Biology Content Video
Content Area Reading:Scaffolding Temporary Task-oriented Support to extend reach Steps to Teaching: • Preparation • Assistance • Reflection •
Teacher Text Analyzes Prior to Lesson • AssessesReadability • Modifiestext if necessary • Identifies KeyVocabulary & Concepts • Identifies Expository Text Structures • Identifies Relation toPrior Knowledge Preparation
Teacher Text: Readability • Prepare students to read the material by considering readability factors • interest& motivation of the reader • legibility of the print & illustrations • complexity of words and sentences in relation to the reading ability of the reader • …readability refers • to all the factors that • affect success in reading • and understanding a text.
Teacher Text: Readability Analyze Word & Sentence Complexity • run a readability analysis at intervention central.org using the OKAPl! Reading Probe Generator • use Microsoft Word spell & grammar check with the readability tool option turned ‘on’
Teacher Student: Reading Level Assess Student Reading Levels: • Running Records • readinga-z.com • Tutorial • Informal Reading Inventories
Teacher Text: Modify If… • Text Level is higher than Instructional Level Then… • Paraphrase (rewrite) Many textbooks now have companion readers/study guides developed specifically as content area reading supplements. These are often ordered by schools for the ELL students. Check. It will save you a lot of time and work!
Teacher Text: Vocabulary Limit the number of words introduced… • Choose words • critical to understanding the main ideas • not likely to be learned independently
Teacher Text: Text Structures Analyze Word & Sentence Complexity Researchers have found that instruction in expository text structure has a positive effect on recall and comprehension. (Armbruster, Anderson, & Ostertag, 1987; Roller & Schreimer, 1985; Taylor & Beach, 1984).
Teacher Text: Text Structures Patterns Social Studies • chronological events • definition/ explanation • cause and effect • compare/contrast • question & answer Science • problem-solving • classification • experimental • cause and effect • definition/explanation
Teacher Text: Text Structures Patterns Literature • character development • settings • plot • moral & message • symbolism • genre Math • key words • graphic relationships • evidence & reasoning • symbolic relationships & operations
Identifying the main idea Locating facts and specific details Organizing material mentally Vocabulary comprehension Adjusting Reading Rate & Focus Summarizing Student Text: Skills Literacy Skills needed in content areas are:
Graphic Organizer Video • Content Writing Clip
Content Reading: TeachingTeacher Text Student Assistance • Before Reading •Building Vocabulary • Activating Prior Knowledge • Setting a Purpose • Previewing • Brainstorming • Predicting • • During Reading • Scanning • Visualizing • Context Clues • Inferring • Questioning • Clarifying • • After Reading • Summarizing • Drawing Conclusions • Reflecting • Critical Thinking • Review • Synthesis • Writing to Learn •
Content Reading: Teaching • Teach Strategies Using: • Established programs & techniques which • address before, during, after • utilize graphic organizers • provide modeling of desired skills • offer variety to address varying learning styles
Writing to Learn Directed Reading Activity (DRA) Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) Guided Reading Procedure (GRP) SQR3 Listen-Read-Discuss (L-R-D) Content Reading: Techniques (More links from Reading Quest Check out the Print Charts!)
ABC brainstorm carousel clock buddies column notes comparison-contrast history frames inquiry chart K - W - L opinion-proof power thinking Content Reading: Techniques (Click the links below for information from Reading Quest on each strategy. Check out the Print Charts!)
questioning the author RAFT papers reciprocal teaching underlining semantic feature analysis story maps summarizing thesis-proof think-pair-share Content Reading: Techniques (More links from Reading Quest Check out the Print Charts!)
3-minute pause 3 - 2 – 1 venn diagrams word maps QARs Content Reading: Techniques (Links to other successful programs & techniques) (More links from Reading Quest) • word splash • word sorts • anticipation guide
Materials and Media • http://www.timetabler.com/reading.html • http://www.gopdg.com/plainlanguage/readability.html • http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr2grap.htm
Bibliography • Mora, Jill Kerper. “Content Area Reading for English Language Learners” March 16, 2006. http://coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/ContentReadMM/> • “Reading in the Content Areas: Strategies for Success” March 21, 2006.http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/educationupclose.phtml/12 • “Literacy Strategies” March 21, 2006 http://www.litandlearn.lpb.org/strategies.html