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Instruments – part 2. www.lrn.dk/arnop.htm. ARNOP Flight Dispatch course. Precission Approach. ILS - Instrument Landing System PAR - Precision Approach Radar (Military) GCA - Ground-Controlled Approach (mostly military) (PAR = Precision) (ASR = Non precision).

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instruments part 2

Instruments – part 2

www.lrn.dk/arnop.htm

ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

precission approach

Precission Approach

ILS - Instrument Landing System

PAR - Precision Approach Radar (Military)

GCA - Ground-Controlled Approach (mostly military)

(PAR = Precision)

(ASR = Non precision)

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Precission Approach

A precision approach provides both horizontal and vertical guidance to the runway. In other words, it's tells you if you're deviating to the left or right and it tells you if you're too high or too low, before you ever see the runway

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dh da

DH / DA

A decision height (DH) or decision altitude (DA) is a specified height or altitude in the precision approach at which a missed approach must be initiated if the required visual reference to continue the approach has not been acquired. This allows the pilot sufficient time to safely re-configure the aircraft to climb and execute the missed approach procedures while avoiding terrain and obstacles.

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approach phases

Instrument approaches generally involve five phases of flight:

Arrival: where the pilot navigates to the Initial Approach Fix (IAF: a navaid or reporting point), and where holding can take place.

Initial the phase of flight after the IAF, where the pilot commences the Approach: navigation of the aircraft to the Final Approach Fix (FAF), a position aligned with the runway, from where a safe controlled descent towards the airport can be initiated.

Intermediate: an additional phase in more complex approaches that may beApproach required to navigate to the FAF.

Approach phases

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approach phases6

Final approach: between 4 and 12 NM of straight flight descending at a set rate (usually an angle of between 2.5 and 6, normally 3 degrees).

Missed: an optional phase; should the required visual reference forApproach landing not have been obtained at the end of the final approach, this allows the pilot to climb the aircraft to a safe altitude and navigate to a position to hold for weather improvement or from where another approach can be commenced.

Approach phases

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ILS

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ILS

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ils gp

ILS GP

Glide path

Vertical guidance.Tells you whether you are high, low or on glide path.

GP is "slaved" to the LLZ frequency

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ils llz

ILS LLZ

Localizer

Horizontal guidance.

Tells you whether you are left, right or on center line.

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ils categories

ILS categories

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llz approaches

Back-beam localizer

Non-precision approach using the localizer from the other end of the runway.

LLZ approaches

Localizer without GP

This is also a non-precison approach

E.g. NOTAM

EKYT

-- RWY 26 ILS GP U/S

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ILS

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ILS

Left: To the right and low

Right: On glide slope and localizer

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ils approach plate

ILS approach plate

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ILS approach plate

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ils markers

ILS markers

OM: Outer marker, approx 5 NM from threshold

MM: Middle marker, approx 0,6 NM from threshold

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ils markers18

ILS markers

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ils markers19

ILS markers

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ILS markers

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gca par

Precision approach radar (PAR) is a type of radar guidance system designed to provide lateral and vertical guidance to an aircraft pilot for landing, until the missed approach point is reached. Controllers monitoring the PAR displays observe each aircraft's position and issue instructions to the pilot that keep the aircraft on course during final approach. It is similar to an instrument landing system (ILS) but requires control instructions.

GCA / PAR

"on course, on glide path“

”slightly above glidepath”

"turn right 2 degrees"

Mobile (Land/Air) Precision Approach Radar/GCA in Afghanistan

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radar

RADAR

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RADAR

Radio Detection and Ranging

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The following figure shows the operating principle of a primary radar. The radar antenna illuminates the target with a microwave signal, which is then reflected and picked up by a receiving device. The electrical signal picked up by the receiving antenna is called echo or return. The radar signal is generated by a powerful transmitter and received by a highly sensitive receiver.

RADAR

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radar25

RADAR

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atc radar

ATC RADAR

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transponder modes

To help improve the "visibility" of aircraft as radar targets, aircraft are equipped with little boxes called transponders. The transponder detects the radar sweep, and in response, generates its own very powerful return pulse. This 200-watt pulse makes the aircraft much easier to see on radar.

Transponder modes

Mode A: When the transponder receives a radar signal it sends back a transponder code (or "squawk code").

Mode C:Mode 3 paired with pressure altitude information

Mode S: Mode A and C information and broadcast information about the aircraft to the Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) system, TCAS receivers on board aircraft and to the ADS-B SSR system. This information includes the call sign.

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weather radar

Weather RADAR

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Weather RADAR

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attitude instruments

Attitude instruments

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ADI (Attitude Direction Indicator )

ADI

EADI (Electronic Attitude Direction Indicator)

PFD (Primary Flight Display)

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PFD (Primary Flight Display)

PFD

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HSI (Horizontal Situation Indicator )

HSI

EHSI (Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator)

ND (Navigation Display)

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ND (Navigation Display)

ND

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radio altimeter

Radio altimeter

Radio altimeters generally only give readings up to 2,500‘ above ground level (AGL).

Radar altimeters are frequently used by commercial aircraft for approach and landing, especially in low-visibility conditions and also automatic landings, allowing the autopilot to know when to begin the flare maneuver. Radar altimeters is also used for GPWS systems.

A radar altimeter or simply RA measures altitude above the terrain presently beneath an aircraft. This type of altimeter provides the distance between the plane and the ground directly below it, as opposed to a barometric altimeter which provides the distance above a pre-determined datum e.g. QNH.

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GPWS

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Ground Proximity Warning System

GPWS

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Ground Proximity Warning System

GPWS

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Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System

TCAS scans the vicinity by interrogating the transponders of other aircraft. It then uses the received transponder signals to compute distance, bearing and altitude relative to the own aircraft.When TCAS detects that an aircraft’s distance and closure rate becomes critical, TCAS generates aural and visual annunciations for the pilots.

TCAS

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TCAS detects any aircraft equipped with a transponder flying in its vicinity, displays potential and predicted collision targets and issues vertical orders to de-conflict.

It is normally independent of ground based ATC systems. Its detection capability is limited to 30nm and ±9900ft. The system comprises a single channel TCAS computer, 2 TCAS antennae, 2 mode S transponders (1 active, 1 standby), and a SSR/TCAS control panel.

Traffic is only displayed when ND range scale is 40nm or less; range scale changes are demanded. TCAS interrogates the SSR of intruders and determines for each intruder its relative bearing, range and closure rate and its relative altitude if available. TCAS then computes the intruder path, its closest point of approach (F-pole) and tau (the estimated time) before F-pole.

Any collision threats trigger aural and visual advisories. TCAS optimises vertical orders to ensure a sufficient path separation and minimal change in VS for considering all intruders.

TCAS

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TCAS

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TCAS

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tcas ta ra

TA is a so-called Traffic Advisory. TAs are given to the pilot in form of the word TRAFFIC displayed in yellow on the ND, and the aural voice annunciation "traffic, traffic". This is not the highest alert level. Its purpose is first to call attention to a possible conflict.

RA means Resolution Advisory, the highest alert level. Its purpose is to resolve a conflict by providing the pilot with aural and visual pitch commands. The pilot has to disengage the autopilot immediately as the escape maneouver has to be flown manually. Flight director commands as well as ATC advisories have to be ignored. The pitch command of an RA has always the highest priority.

If a target is approaching at the same altitude:   “Climb, climb, climb!” -- or --   “Descend, descend, descend!”

TCAS TA / RA

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TCAS

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TCAS

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flight guidance systems

Flight guidance systems

The MD-80 digital flight guidance system is a dual, autopilot, flight director and autothrottle system with fail passive autoland capability. It is designed for guidance throughout the full flight regimes, from takeoff through climb, cruise, descent and landing included the roll-out.

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FMS

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A flight management system is a fundamental part of a modern aircraft in that it controls the navigation. The flight management system (FMS) is the avionics that holds the flight plan, and allows the pilot to modify as required in flight. The FMS uses various sensors to determine the aircraft's position. Given the position and the flight plan, the FMS guides the aircraft along the flight plan. The FMS is normally controlled through a small screen and a keyboard. The FMS sends the flight plan for display on the Navigation Display (ND).

All FMS contain a navigation database. The navigation database contains the elements from which the flight plan is constructed. These are defined via the ARINC 424 standard. The navigation database (NDB) is normally updated every 28 days, in order to ensure that its contents are current.

FMS

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Area Navigation (RNAV) is a method of navigation that allows an aircraft to choose any course within a network of navigation beacons, rather than navigating directly to and from the beacons

RNAV

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An Inertial Navigation System (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer and motion sensors to continuously track the position, orientation, and velocity (direction and speed of movement) of an aircraft without the need for external references

INS

All inertial navigation systems suffer from drift. Small errors in the measurement of acceleration and angular velocity are integrated into progressively larger errors in velocity, which is compounded into still greater errors in position

The inaccuracy of a good-quality navigational system is normally fewer than 0.6 NM per hour in position and on the order of tenths of a degree per hour in orientation.

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Global Positioning System

GPS

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Global Positioning System

GPS

The GPS uses a constellation of between 24 and 32 medium earth orbit satellites (20.200 km out) that transmit precise microwave signals, that enable GPS receivers to determine their current location, the time, and their velocity (including direction). Each satellites orbiting earth twice a day.

The system uses 3 satellites for position determination. It measures the time it takes a signal to travel from the satellite to the receiver and convert it to distance. Uses atomic clocks. A time difference of 1/10 sec equals a 3000 km errror.

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GPS

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datalink acars

Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System

A digital datalink system for transmission of small messages between aircraft and ground stations via HF, VHF or SATCOM. Datalink makes it possible for aircraft to communicate efficiently with the ground at all times during a flight.

DATALINK / ACARS

SAS uses the ACARS datalink system. It is a datalink technology developed specifically for the airline industry. A network of ground radio stations ensure that aircraft can communicate with SAS in real-time from practically anywhere in the world. Satellites are used over oceans or remote areas were no ground stations exist. ACARS handles text-based information of essentially the same type as can be sent via ground-ground telex.

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datalink acars55

A person or a system on board may create a message and send it via ACARS to a system or user on the ground, and vice versa.Messages are sent both automatically and manually.

  • There are 3 major components to the ACARS datalink system:
  • Aircraft equipment
  • Service provider
  • Ground processing system

DATALINK / ACARS

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datalink acars56

DATALINK / ACARS

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satcom

Short for Satellite Communications

SATCOM

World wide communication via IMMARSAT network.

4 geostationary satellites. 2 x atlantic, 1 x india and 1 x pacific ocean.

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