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Part 2

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  1. Pre-1840 Maori/Pakeha Relations Part 2

  2. Missionaries • Were more important than other Europeans in race relations • Needed cooperation of Maori as did others, but • Usually Missionaries came to stay • They sought to change Maori life and society • Humanitarian and missionary organisations influenced governemnt policy in Britain • Attempts to convert ‘heathens’ were part of overall Christian renewal in Britain

  3. First Missionaries • From Church Missionary Society • 1814 Marsden brought lay missionaries to Rangihoua in Bay of Islands. • To encourage a spirit of trade • Through trade bring Maori to Christianity • Expected to set moral example • Not usually interested in trying to understand Maori culture

  4. Early Missionaries cont’d • Initially poor conditions and relied on Maori to survive • Dominated by local Maori to start with • Achieved little as missionaries of Christian faith • Presence added to existing interaction between Maori and Pakeha • Interdenominational rivalry puzzled Maori

  5. Samuel Marsden • A Chaplain, magistrate and landowner in NSW • Met a number of Maori including Te Pahi (1805) in Sydney • Considered Maori potential Christians • 1807 asked Church Missionary Society to sponsor mission to NZ • Became Society’s chief agent in South pacific • NZ delayed until 1814 – Boyd incident • Visited NZ 7 times to keep missions going

  6. Thomas Kendall • Developed some knowledge of Maori • 1816-18 school at Rangihoua but it failed through lack of supplies • 1820 publisheda grammar ofNZ language • Tried to understand Maori concepts and symbolism • Evangelical, temper, sense of sin – fell out with other missionaries • Had a sexual liaison with a Maori servant and former pupil

  7. Rev Henry Williams • 1823 arrived in Bay of Islands • Influenced CMS and its relations with Maori • 1830s missionaries all around North Island • Ex-naval officer and strong leader and energy • Aquired mana for himself and missionaries

  8. Rev Henry Williams cont’d • Williams related well to Maori leaders and was not intimidated by them • Used spiritual teaching rather than civilisation to convert • Re-established schooling for Maori children • Reduced missionaries involvment in trade • Encouraged missionaries to speak Maori

  9. Other Denominations • Weslyans at head of Whangaroa Harbour 1823-27. • Initially Maori dominated Weslyans insisting on trade rather than teaching • Mission sacked 1827 – weslyans fled • Rebuilt Mangungu at Hokianga under protection of Patuone and Waka Nene

  10. Catholics • Bishop Pompallier from France in 1838 • Mission established at Kororareka • Pompallier tall and had impact and presence • Lernt English and Maori • Travelled extensively • Too late to have much influence as Maori turned away from Christianity in 1840s

  11. Closer in 1830s • Pace of acculturation increased • Maori and Pakeha more dependent on each other • NZ became closer to Britain and outside world

  12. Acculturation • Maori became more afflicted with European diseases • Maori began to adopt Christianity • Took up alcohol and tobacco • Increasing number of Europeans-2000 by 1840 approx • Most interaction in North of North Island • More ships visiting (Bay of Islands had 24 per year in 1820s to 137 per year between 1834-29) • More indirect contact away from northern North Island

  13. Maori and Christianity • 1830s - thousands of Maori accepted Christianity • Maori saw no conflict between accepting Christianity and continuing traditional formds of religious activity • Most conversion from Maori evangelists rather than missionaries • First Maori conversions were slaves

  14. Acceptance • Mid-1830s most missionaries spoke Maori • William Williams had translated whole of New Testament to Maori • Common Prayer book translated by 1837 • Colenso printed first Maori new Testaments Dec. 1837 • Written word gave Maori access to European knowledge

  15. Maori Conversion • For desire for links with pakeha and access to goods such as arms • Adaptations of Christianity • Interpretations of Maori teachers • Access to European power • Missionaries offered way of coping with disease • More effective missionary methods • Intellectual curiosity • Means of ending warfare • Appeal of literacy • Some acceptance of western dominance

  16. Nature of Conversion • Did not turn Maori into ‘brown Europeans’ overnight • Maori stimulated by biblical ideas but still held to traditional beliefs • Maori identified with Jews but also saw Jesus as offering hope for the future • Literacy acquired was of Te Reo but Maori also began to need English • Maori adapted christianity -’adjustment cults’.

  17. Papahurihia • A Ngai tahu tohunga developed Maori religious movement in 1830s based on Maori beliefs and biblical teachings • Name of god worshiped was Papahurihia • Followers called Hurai (Jews) • Observed Sabbath on Saturday • Opposed Protestant missionaries

  18. Wiremu Tamihana • Of Ngati Haua and a Maori leader influenced by a CMS missionary • 1830s- directed his tribe towards Christianity • Had mana of his father and own deeds • Saw Christian god as more powerful than Maori Atua – agreed with coexistance • Established new christian village – Te Tapiri and Peria • 1840s also lead people in establishing farming, teaching and maintaining justice

  19. Late 1830s • European settlement had more impact on Maori relations in North • By late 1830s most Maori impacted by Europeans • Missionaries encouraged Maori to look to Britain as their protector • From 1826 a British naval ship visited from NSW regularly • Missionaries developed power because of faith and were seen as represenatives of British

  20. British Representative • Busby appointed 1833 • Waitangi Maori gathering 1834 Busby asked chiefs to select a flag • 28 Oct 1825 Busby encouraged chiefs to sign a Declaration of Independence • British governemnt recognised Declaration and independence of Maori • Protection extended to Maori

  21. Busby’s Failure • Tribal rivalry, competition and war • Inability to introuce British authority • Any more steps would have to be more formal before settlement • Change of British view from one that accomodated Europeans in NZ to one that accomodated Maori.

  22. Pressures • Lawless Europeans in North • Mutual dependence broken down by increased numbers of Europeans • Maori still wanted more trade and access to Europeans • Missionaries wanted to protect Maori from Lawlessness • British traders petitioned for more control and enforce peace • Exagerated reports of unrest sent to Britain • CMS agitated for British control to protect Maori

  23. British Actions • 1837 Busby suggetsed a British protectorate for NZ • 1837 Hobson suggetsed not a full takeover but more involvment and negotiation • British government considered a charter but idea rejected • Genuine concerns for Maori but no idea of how to protect them from unscrupulous Europeans • Unwilling to expend money on any involvement

  24. Fcators Influencing Increased British Involvement • French and US becoming more interested in NZ • Shonky land deals • NZ Company sought to establish colonies whether Britain involved or not • British governemnt changed in 1839 and so new policy • ‘Tory’ left in 1839 followed by 6 emigrant ships The Tory

  25. Decision • British government decided on formal intervention • No consultation with Maori • July-August 1839 Limited intervention decided upon to control settlers and protect Maori • Treaty needed as Britain had already accepted Maori sovereignty and independence under the Declaration of Independence in 1835.

  26. References • Based on Graham Langton, (2005) Pre-1840 Maori/Pakeha Relations in Year 13 – New Zealand in the 19th Century. Auckland: ESA Publications. pp.55-64