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Electronic Commerce Technology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Electronic Commerce Technology. Technology. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol TCP/IP TCP Data transport IP Routing Addressability. Data transport. Circuit switching Resource dedication Packet switching Resource sharing Split messages into packages Number packages

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technology
Technology
  • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
    • TCP/IP
  • TCP
    • Data transport
  • IP
    • Routing
    • Addressability
data transport
Data transport
  • Circuit switching
    • Resource dedication
  • Packet switching
    • Resource sharing
    • Split messages into packages
    • Number packages
    • Reassemble packages
routing
Routing
  • Dynamically determining the best route through the network
  • Packets may not all take the same path
addressability
Addressability
  • Every server must be uniquely addressable
  • InterNIC assigns unique IP addresses
  • An IP address
    • 32-bit number
    • 4 groups of decimal numbers in the range 0 - 255
      • 128.192.28.91
      • mis.cba.uga.edu
national information infrastructure
National information infrastructure
  • The foundation
  • Hardware
  • The communication networks
    • TV, radio, telephone, Internet
  • Critical to national competitiveness
message distribution infrastructure
Message distribution infrastructure
  • Software for sending and receiving messages
    • EDI, e-mail, HTTP
electronic publishing infrastructure
Electronic publishing infrastructure
  • The content layer
  • The Web
    • Uniform resource location (URL)
    • Network protocol (HTTP)
    • Markup language (HTML)
business services infrastructure
Business services infrastructure
  • Support common business processes
  • Secure transmission of data
    • Encryption
    • Authentication
  • Electronic money exchange
slide13
PDF
  • Portable Document Format
  • Adobe Acrobat
    • Exchange
    • Reader (free)
  • Electronic publishing from any application
slide14
HTML
  • A markup language
  • Marks a particular portion of text
    • <strong>Important</strong>
  • Browser determines how presented
internet
Internet

Computer

Organization

Server

Legend

Internet backbone

intranet
Intranet

Firewall

extranet
Extranet

Firewall

Firewall

electronic data interchange edi
Electronic data interchange (EDI)
  • The electronic exchange of standard business documents
  • Standardized data formats for common business documents
    • ANSI X.12
    • EDIFACT
advantages of edi
Advantages of EDI
  • Reduced paper handling
  • Real time exchange of data
  • Fewer errors
  • Enhanced coordination
  • Acceleration of money flows
limitations of edi
Limitations of EDI
  • Almost 80% of information flow between companies is still on paper
  • VANs are too expensive for many smaller firms
  • EDI will become Internet based because of lower costs
security
Security
  • The openness of the Internet makes security more difficult
  • Computer technology can be used to attack the Internet
data access control
Data access control
  • Controlling who has access
    • However, goal is often to attract not restrict visitors
  • Authentication mechanisms
firewall
Firewall
  • A device placed between an organization’s network and the Internet
  • Monitors and controls traffic between the Internet and Intranet
  • Approaches
    • Restrict packets to those with designated IP addresses
    • Restrict access to applications
encryption
Encryption
  • Encryption is as old as writing
  • Sensitive information needs to be remain secure
  • Critical to electronic commerce
  • Encryption hides the meaning of a message
  • Decryption reveals the meaning of an encrypted message
public key encryption
Public key encryption

Sender

Receiver

Encrypt

Decrypt

Receiver's

public key

Receiver's

private key

signing
Signing
  • Message authentication

Sender

Receiver

Verify

Sign

Sender's

private key

Sender's

public key

electronic money
Electronic money
  • Electronic commerce needs
    • speed
    • security
    • privacy
    • internationalization
  • Paper-based systems are inadequate
electronic funds transfer
Electronic funds transfer
  • Introduced in the late 1960s by banks
  • Electronic check writing
  • Fast and flexible
  • All transaction must pass through the banking system and are recorded
    • No anonymity
digital cash
Digital cash
  • Electronic parallel of notes and cash
  • Prepaid cards
  • Smart cards
    • Combines many functions
  • Privacy of cash
  • Can be lost or stolen
ecash
Ecash
  • Digicash can be used to withdraw and deposit electronic cash over the Internet
  • Anonymity
  • Need a digital bank account
  • Person-to-person transfers
  • Uses public-key encryption
credit card
Credit card
  • Safe, secure, and widely used
  • Secure servers and clients support the use of credit cards
  • Credit card suppliers are working to improve security (SET)
  • Does not support person-to-person transfers
  • Does not have the privacy of cash
secure sockets layer ssl
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
  • Created by Netscape for secure message transmission.
  • Uses public-key encryption
  • Browser is the client
  • Netscape servers can be enabled for SSL
  • Other servers can be enabled by installing the Netscape SSLRef program library
secure electronic transaction set
Secure Electronic Transaction (SET)
  • Backed by Visa and MasterCard
  • Based on cryptography and digital certificates
  • Digital certificates uniquely identify the parties to a transaction
    • An electronic credit card
    • Registries for authentication
  • A digital signature is used to guarantee a sender’s identity
set components
SET Components
  • Cardholder wallet
  • Merchant server
  • Payment gateway
the set process
The SET process
  • Certificate authority
  • Computerworld quick study
    • http://www2.computerworld.com/home/features.nsf/all/980629qs
set pros and cons
SET pros and cons
  • Merchant cannot decipher credit card details
  • SSL is well-established and simpler
slide39
Java
  • Object oriented
  • Portable network programs
    • Program is compiled into Java bytecode that can run on any server or client in a network that has a Java virtual machine
    • The Java virtual machine converts the bytecode into instructions that will run on the real computer hardware.
javabeans
JavaBeans
  • An object-oriented programming interface from Sun Microsystems that lets you build re-useable applications or program building blocks called components that can be deployed in a network on any major operating system platform
javascript
JavaScript
  • Netscape’s interpreted programming language
  • Easier and faster to code than Java but not as powerful
    • Good for editing forms
  • Can be embedded in HTML pages and interpreted by the Web browser
cookie
Cookie
  • Remembers details of a single visit or stores facts between visits
    • small file
  • Visit tracking
    • Site improvement
  • Storing information
    • Subscription services
  • Customization
    • New services
  • Marketing
    • Banner ads
shortcomings of html
Shortcomings of HTML
  • Not extensible
    • Cannot define own tags or attributes
  • Unstructured
    • A presentation language for displaying information
  • Lack of desciption
    • Cannot include metadata to describe the data
      • Each book must have a title
  • No support for validation
slide44
XML
  • XML is a markup language for documents containing structured information
  • Overcomes shortcomings of HTML
  • XML specifies neither semantics nor a tag set
  • All of the semantics of an XML document are defined by the applications that process them or by stylesheets
  • HTML is a presentation language with predefined tags
slide45
XML
  • Paper form
    • Infer meaning from headings, titles, and context
  • EDI
    • Infer meaning from position in the record
  • XML
    • Infer meaning from surrounding tags
slide46
XML
  • An encoding standard
  • Exchange format
  • Vocabularies
    • Open Financial Exchange Format (OFX)
    • Chemical Markup Language (CML)