Objectives 1. Identify the variables of training (FITT) 2. Identify the principles of training (PROVIRRBS) 3. Explain the general concept of periodization
F.I.T.T. Acronym for the Variables of Training • Frequency - Number of workouts/week • Intensity – Speed or resistance as a % of max • Time - Duration (# of reps, distance, time) • Type - Mode of exercise (run, weights, swim)
Regularity Progression Variety Recovery Overload Specificity Balance Realism Individualism PROVIRRBS-Acronym for the Principles of Training
PROVIRRBS--Training Principles (continued) • Progression: • start training at level appropriate for initial fitness assessment • gradually increase as body adapts to the training • Regularity – 2-3 times/week • Overload - intensity and/or timethat exceed day to day normal demands
PROVIRRBS-Principles of Training (continued) • Variety: • equipment, exercises & activities • avoid boredom, increase motivation (adherence), reduce risk of overuse injuries • Individualism: - know your capabilities/limitations - maintain strengths/work on weaknesses • Recovery: • optimal time for sleep and reduced activity • heal from stress of training (rebuilding tissue, replenishing stored energy)
PROVIRRBSPrinciples of Training (continued) • Realism: • training plans and goals must make sense given time and resources available • failing hurts motivation and adherence • Balance: • between all 5 components (F, CR, MS, ME & BC) • between push and pull movements at each joint • between upper-body and lower-body • Specificity: • training demands must emphasize exact areas of desired improvement • movement velocity and patterns, muscle groups, energy systems, ranges of motion
Periodization Periodization is the concept of “backplanning” and using a calendar to train for a particular specific athletic event. It is commonly used by elite and amateur athletes from virtually all sports.
Basic Principles of Periodization Base – 4-8 weeks – low level progression of intensity & volume, incorporating a variety of exercises Build – 4-10 weeks - gradually increase progression of intensity and/or volume; incorporate exercise specificity Peak (aka taper or pre competition) – 1 to 2 weeks immediately prior to event or competition; reduce volume, intensity high, event specific movement Recovery – 1-3 weeks, reduced volume & intensity, rest, variety of exercises
Periodization • Avoid increasing both volume & intensity in any one week. • Limit increases in volume or intensity to than 10%/week if deconditioned. • Limit increases in volume or intensity to 1-3%/week for highly conditioned athletes. • Limit volume to 40-60% during peak week; maintain high intensity • Rule of thumb for peak time for elite athletes – 14 days/running, 10 days/cycling, 7 days/swimming. • Incorporate a lighter (recovery/rest) week every 3rd - 4th week during the base and build weeks cycles
Periodization Resistance athletes typically have a hypertrophy phase, then build phase, then maximal strength or maximal power phase. For some athletes with a “season”, there can be a maintenance or competition phase with somewhat reduced volume and active recovery after competitions/games.
Be sure to include Recovery! Start of next Training Cycle: Season/Day End of Activity: Season/Day • Injury Rehabilitation • Rest • Maintenance of General • Strength/Endurance • Adaptation to Stress from Training • Days to Weeks • Active Recovery
DAILY-WARM UP/COOL DOWN STRETCHING 2-3 TIMES/WEEK 3-5 TIMES/WEEK 3-5 TIMES/WEEK HIGH LOW 2 MIN LOW HIGH 0 - 1 MIN 70-90% OF MAX HR TENSION NOT PAIN 25 MINUTES MINIMUM 30 SECS STRETCH LONG SHORT distance runs, wind sprints, flak-vest runs, last man up runs, intervals, fartleks, relays, circuits guerilla drills, hill repeats log drills, sandbags, water jugs buddy squats, litter relays, weight training obstacle courses, circuits, pull- ups, push-ups, dips, sit-ups, stairs, rope climb, relays, sandbag/ water jug circuits STATIC PASSIVE P.N.F
Administrative Guidelines • Formation/ Accountability Times • Accountability Plan • Exercise Leader Plan • Warm-up and cool-down policy • Other Training Guidance
Unit Fitness Training Should:- Complement unit’s training schedule- Incorporate FITT and PROVIRRBS- Include periodization- Incorporate METL and commander’s guidance
“Nations have passed away and left no trace, and history gives the naked cause of it - one single, simple reason in all cases; they fell because their people were not fit.”Rudyard Kipling