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Children in the virtual violent games -The Matrix will be everywhere-

Children in the virtual violent games -The Matrix will be everywhere-

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Children in the virtual violent games -The Matrix will be everywhere-

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  1. Children in the virtual violent games-The Matrix will be everywhere- Community Pediatrics Legislative Advocacy Project Akihiro Asai

  2. Menu • Background • Case • Games and child health • Current regulation • AAP policy • Legislation issues • What can we do?

  3. Back ground • Video game industry • 9.5 billion in the US in 2007 • Video games at home • Wii + Xbox + PS 3 = 33 M in the US • Portable games : 40M • US minor population: 80 M

  4. Video game history • 1983 Family Computer in Japan • 1985 Nintendo in US

  5. New generation • Wii (2006) • Remote controller : Tangible, motion detectingin 3D.

  6. Violence in video game

  7. Case of Grand Theft Auto • Extremely popular • 50M sales in the world • Main activity : Carjacking • Once a car is stolen, the player can run over pedestrians • purchase guns to shoot at and kill rival gang members (or pedestrians) • the player is able to pick up aprostitute, have sex to replenish health, then kill her to take back the money spent

  8. Case of Grand Theft Auto case #1 • 18yo male, D.M., shot and killed two policemen and a dispatcher after grabbing one of the officers' weapons. • At trial, the defense claimed that Moore had been inspired by the video gameGrand Theft Auto: Vice City 2003 June

  9. Case of Grand Theft Auto case #2 • 14yo and 16yo male, J.B. and W.B. ,used a rifle to fire at vehicles on I-40inTennessee, killing a 45yo man and wounding a 19yo woman. • The two shooters told investigators they had been inspired byGrand Theft Auto III. • June 2003

  10. First-person shooter • Highest immersion factor • “ see through the eyes of the character in the game” • Virtual effects • Columbine High School shooter mentioned in their own video

  11. Video games and child health • Media exposure 2-18yo : 6hr 32min/day • (TV, Video, Game, Radio, Print, Music, PC) • Video game exposure : < 1 hour/day (average) • violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults • Psychol Sci2001 Sept • Association between television, movie, and video game exposure and school performance • Pediatrics 2007 Feb

  12. Influence on children • Increase aggressive behavior, desensitization toviolence, fear, depression, nightmares, and sleep disturbances • Interaction -> enforce learning • Video game: ideal tool when used to learn violent behavior • Vulnerable to learning and adopting violent behavior • Kids younger than 8 • cannot discriminate betweenfantasy and reality

  13. Violence in children • Interpersonal violence • More prevalent than infectious, cancer, congenital disorder • the most prevalent cause of injury(33%) • Homicide, suicide, and trauma • leading causes of mortalityin the pediatric population, • cumulative death ratesof 22.8/100000in 5-14yo ,114.4/100000in 15-21yo

  14. Current regulation • Entertainment Software Rating Board • game industry’s self-regulatory body • Game companies must follow ”Principles and Guidelines for Responsible Advertising Practices”

  15. Rating Strong violence and sexual contents Only 25 game titles Selling to 17yo and younger is not illegal Not sold at almost all the store in town

  16. Problem of rating system • It does not have the legal authority ! • Rating mismatch, misconducts • Confusion with other media rating (TV, movie , etc) • only 10% check the ratings of computer or video games that theiradolescents wish to rent or buy • Everyone can buy them all on-line

  17. AAP Policy • Media Violence • November 2001 • Play of violent video games should be restricted to age-limited areas of gaming arcades; the distribution of videos and videogames and the exhibition of movies should be limited to appropriateage groups. • Pediatricians should incorporate a media history intoannual health maintenance examinations • When heavy media use by a child is identified, pediatriciansshould evaluate the child for aggressive behaviors, fears, orsleep disturbances and intervene appropriately • Limit media exposure 1-2 hours/day

  18. Current legislation • Truth in Video Game Rating Act (Introduced in Senate) • Video Game Rating Enforcement Act of 2008 (Introduced in Senate) • Children Protection from Video Game Violence and Sexual Content Act (Introduced in House) • An act to amend the general business law, in relation to prohibiting sale of certain video games to minors ( NY states)

  19. Previous act • Family Entertainment Protection Act (FEPA) • 2005 Nov, 109 Congress • introduced by SenatorHillary Clinton, and co-sponsored by Senators • called for a federal mandate enforcement of the ESRB ratings system forvideo gamesin order to protect children from inappropriate content. • impose fines for offense of selling a "Mature" or "Adult-Only" rated video game to a minor • FTCinvestigation into the ESRB • did not become law • referred to theSenate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportationand expired at the end of the109th session of Congresswithout further action

  20. Recent movement • A Louisianafederal judge has thrown out a law written by video game critic Jack Thompson (Attorney) which would have prevented the sale of violent games to minors. • November 2006 • Judge strikes down Washington, Illinois, Michigan state's violent video game law • July 2004 - 2006

  21. Other countries policy • Japan • CERO (Computer Entertainment Rating Organization) : 3rd party • A (all age) B >12yo C >15yo D >17yo • Z >18 yo= adult only • Not law binding • “Harmful media” law by states • To “Grand Theft Auto San Andreas” • UK • BBFC (British Board of Film Classification) rating • Backed up by law

  22. What can we do? • Recognize the effect of video game violence on children • Continue to educate patients and parents • Encourage the government to introduce legislations which regulate game rating and sales

  23. Emerging virtual world

  24. The Matrix will be everywhere