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Chapter 9 Linking Vision and Change

Chapter 9 Linking Vision and Change

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Chapter 9 Linking Vision and Change

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  1. Chapter 9Linking Vision and Change

  2. Vision Having a vision is often linked to why successful organizational change is achieved Conversely, lack of vision is frequently associated with organizational decline The role of vision in producing organizational change is linked to the image one has of managing change Vision is commonly thought of as a guide for the organization in identifying the appropriateness of particular changes that are proposed Vision Content of Meaningful Vision How Context Affects Vision Processes by which Vision Emerges Failure of Vision Debates linking Vision and Change Heroic Leaders or Organizations Developing an effective Vision 9-2

  3. Content of Meaningful Vision The content of meaningful vision has sparked considerable debate. Some consideration has been given to attributes, its style, and how it is differentiated from mission and organizational values. Here are some examples: Two Attributes of vision: cognitive component – focusing on achieving outcomes affective component – helping to motivate people and increase commitment to the change (Boal & Hooijberg, 2001) Three components of vision are: Why the change is needed The aim of the change The change actions that will be taken (Pendlebury et al, 1998) Four generic characteristics of vision are: Imaginable – picture of future Desirable – appeal to interests Feasible - realistic Focused - guide of decision making Flexible - enable individual initiatives Communicable - in five min (Kotter, 1996) Vision Content of Meaningful Vision How Context Affects Vision Processes by which Vision Emerges Failure of Vision Debates linking Vision and Change Heroic Leaders or Organizations Developing an effective Vision 9-3

  4. Content of Meaningful Vision A vision is a “snapshot of the future state you want to work toward.” (Duke Corporation Education, 2005) Exercise: Assess the vision statements of Table 9.4 in relation to the Kotter’s characteristics for good visions. Also assess them in relation to the above definition. Which of the visions seem to be “good”? Vision Content of Meaningful Vision How Context Affects Vision Processes by which Vision Emerges Failure of Vision Debates linking Vision and Change Heroic Leaders or Organizations Developing an effective Vision 9-4

  5. Content of Meaningful Vision Vision as stories This allows a vivid description of the change to which people can relate. Stories are more effective than simple vision statements because people can imagine themselves and their actions in the future. Relationship to mission, values, strategy Vision: what the organization wants to be. Mission: the fundamental purpose of the organization. Values: beliefs that are shared among the stakeholders of the organization. Strategy: how the organization will progress toward its future specifically. Relationship of Vision to Market Strategy: having a well-specified market vision (external dimension) helps to identify how the company will grow and compete (internal dimension). Vision Content of Meaningful Vision How Context Affects Vision Processes by which Vision Emerges Failure of Vision Debates linking Vision and Change Heroic Leaders or Organizations Developing an effective Vision 9-5

  6. How Context affects Vision There are four organizational contexts in terms of their ability to produce visionary change that should be considered. These are: Rigid organizations: low resources, lack of acceptance, hierarchical Bold organizations: low resources, high acceptance, organic Overmanaged organizations: high resources, low acceptance, dominated by past practices Liberated organizations: high resources, high acceptance of the need for change Vision Content of Meaningful Vision How Context Affects Vision Processes by which Vision Emerges Failure of Vision Debates linking Vision and Change Heroic Leaders or Organizations Developing an effective Vision 9-6

  7. Processes by which vision emerges There are a number of approaches to creating vision which include: Crafting the vision:this can be either Telling/Selling, Testing/Consulting, Co-creating Questions that help to develop a vision:this can be done through an intuitive, analytic or benchmarking approach Connecting the vision to the organization’s inner voice:this connects the vision to the underlying values and beliefs that are held within the organization. Vision Content of Meaningful Vision How Context Affects Vision Processes by which Vision Emerges Failure of Vision Debates linking Vision and Change Heroic Leaders or Organizations Developing an effective Vision 9-7

  8. Failure of Vision Visions can fail for a number of reasons including being: too specific too vague inadequate too unrealistic (Pendlebury et al., 1998) A vision must be able to adapt over time A dominant vision will be one that outlasts others that may be present within the organization. Vision Content of Meaningful Vision How Context Affects Vision Processes by which Vision Emerges Failure of Vision Debates linking Vision and Change Heroic Leaders or Organizations Developing an effective Vision 9-8

  9. Debates linking Vision and Change There are three key debates that link vision and change. Does vision drive change or emerge during change? Does vision help or hinder change? Is vision an attribute of heroic leaders or of heroic organizations? Vision Content of Meaningful Vision How Context Affects Vision Processes by which Vision Emerges Failure of Vision Debates linking Vision and Change Heroic Leaders or Organizations Developing an effective Vision 9-9

  10. Heroic Leaders or Organizations Is Vision an Attribute of Heroic Leaders or of Heroic Organizations? Vision is an attribute of heroic leaders: Some writers claim that successful strategic organizational change will only occur when it is led effectively Vision is an attribute of heroic organizations: It is a visionary company that will last the distance, irrespective of its leadership. Vision consists of a core ideology which defines what the organization stands for – it becomes the core purpose and envisioned future of the organization. Vision Content of Meaningful Vision How Context Affects Vision Processes by which Vision Emerges Failure of Vision Debates linking Vision and Change Heroic Leaders or Organizations Developing an effective Vision 9-10

  11. Keys to developing an effective Vision Senior managers need to take the lead in developing vision, but the members of the organization need to be involved Vision should fit the unique situation of the organization and cannot be copied or borrowed from others. Vision need to set high aspirations for the organization so that members feel that they have challenging but reachable goals. Vision need to focus on how an organization will win in the future, what its outstanding products and services will be, and how they will satisfy the customer. Vision Content of Meaningful Vision How Context Affects Vision Processes by which Vision Emerges Failure of Vision Debates linking Vision and Change Heroic Leaders or Organizations Developing an effective Vision 9-11

  12. Keys to developing an effective Vision Vision need to reflect the values that will guide how the organization accomplishes its goals and mission, and allow employees to identify with the way the organization operates. Vision must communicate a sense of direction and stimulate discovery of what the organization can do and what works in particular business environments. Vision must provide all employees with a sense of where it is trying to go. The org. leaders should identify the kinds of capabilities that are needed, communicate them through vision statements and develop commitment to them throughout the organization. Vision Content of Meaningful Vision How Context Affects Vision Processes by which Vision Emerges Failure of Vision Debates linking Vision and Change Heroic Leaders or Organizations Developing an effective Vision 9-12

  13. Chapter 10Strategies for Communicating Change

  14. Images of Managing Change • Images of Managing Change • Communication Process • Language, Power, Gender & Communication • Emotion & Communication • Communication Strategies • - Contingency approaches • Communication Media: • Richness • Responsibility 10-14

  15. Communication Process The way change is communicated is important to the success of the change program The communication process, or mix, includes elements such as content, voice, tone, message, audience, medium, frequency and consistency. Many problems can disturb the process of communication: message overload message distortion and message ambiguity • Images of Managing Change • Communication Process • Language, Power, Gender & Communication • Emotion & Communication • Communication Strategies • - Contingency approaches • Communication Media: • Richness • Responsibility 10-15

  16. Language, Power, Gender & Communication Language, power, gender and emotion can impact the communication of change. Language reflects and reinforces underlying social and power relationships. Gender differences, also affect this process. Three examples of the difference are: Getting credit Confidence and boasting Asking questions how feedback is given and received how compliments are exchanged whether the communication is direct or indirect • Images of Managing Change • Communication Process • Language, Power, Gender & Communication • Emotion & Communication • Communication Strategies • - Contingency approaches • Communication Media: • Richness • Responsibility 10-16

  17. Emotion & Communication Emotion is linked to change, and can also contribute to the breakdown of the communication process. Individuals can perceive that organizational change can harm them personally, thus their emotional state and sense of identity are threatened by change situations. Managers can use three techniques to avoid these situations: Perspective taking Threat-reducing behavior Reflection • Images of Managing Change • Communication Process • Language, Power, Gender & Communication • Emotion & Communication • Communication Strategies • - Contingency approaches • Communication Media: • Richness • Responsibility 10-17

  18. Communication Strategies How much communication: table 10.5 depending on the change and the image of the change manager the level and extent of communication can vary. Getting word out or buy in: table 10.7 this differentiates between focusing the communication process on the provision of information or gaining participation in the process. Beyond Spray and Pray: table 10.9 This communication continuum includes five approaches Spray and pray Tell and sell Underscore and explore Identify and reply Withhold and uphold • Images of Managing Change • Communication Process • Language, Power, Gender & Communication • Emotion & Communication • Communication Strategies • - Contingency approaches • Communication Media: • Richness • Responsibility 10-18

  19. Communication Strategies Contingency approaches to communicating strategy vary depending: on the type of change (Stace & Dunphy, 2001) Developmental or incremental Task-focused Charismatic Turnaround on the stage of change e.g. (Reardon & Reardon, 1999) Planning Enabling Launching Catalyzing Maintaining • Images of Managing Change • Communication Process • Language, Power, Gender & Communication • Emotion & Communication • Communication Strategies • - Contingency approaches • Communication Media: • Richness • Responsibility 10-19

  20. Communication Media: Richness Varies in “richness” depending on how personal is its ability to communicate change There is a hierarchy of media richness For example, an email or memo is less personal (and less “rich”) than a face to face meeting Figure 10.3, page 309 Different types of media may also be more appropriate for different audiences with differing need Table 10.10 • Images of Managing Change • Communication Process • Language, Power, Gender & Communication • Emotion & Communication • Communication Strategies • - Contingency approaches • Communication Media: • Richness • Responsibility 10-20

  21. CEO: Many believe that the CEO should be the principle communicator of change while others find lower level managers more trusted by staff and therefore in a better position to communicate change. Tag Teams: Many organizations now use tag teams – a transition management team. The role of this team is specifically to stimulate open conversations through organizational units and dispersing information. Communication Media: Responsibility • Images of Managing Change • Communication Process • Language, Power, Gender & Communication • Emotion & Communication • Communication Strategies • - Contingency approaches • Communication Media: • Richness • Responsibility 10-21