STRUCTURE AND ROLES “The structural perspective champions a pattern of well-thought-out roles and relationships.”
Structural Frame Bolman and Deal, 2003
Scientific Management ApproachFrederick Winslow Taylor • Clear delineation of authority • Separation of planning from operations • Task specialization • Responsibility • Incentive schemes for workers Taylor, 1911
Positive and Negative Aspects of Scientific Management • Strengths ~objectivity ~logical ~action oriented ~modes of accountability • Limitations • ~impersonal ~overly simplistic ~pessimistic • ~inflexible
Scientific Management At Work In Education: High-Stakes Standardized Tests • Teaching the curriculum chosen by test-designers • Creative pedagogy is not rewarded • Teachers’ prerogatives are disappearing and the talents that they once utilized daily are increasingly no longer called upon.
Other Contributors • Frank and Lillian Gilbreth • Cheaper by the Dozen • Henry Gantt • Gantt Chart • Henry Ford • Production Assembly Line A Gantt chart is a popular type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule.
Bureaucratic ModelMax Weber • A bureaucracy is an organizational structure advanced by the development of “Monocratic Bureaucracy.” The model was developed by the German sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920). It consisted of: • Rules • Specialization • Hierarchy of positions • Technical qualification • Long Term employment • Examples: Post Office, Police, and Fire Departments • Bolman & Deal (2003)
Bureaucracy and Productivity • Contrary to popular belief, a bureaucracy can be an organizational structure which can deliver productivity. • Rules and policies govern conditions of work and specify standard processes for carrying out tasks. • Rules and policies do much to ensure equality, conformity, safety, and order in the workplace.
Negative Aspects of Bureaucracy The very rules and policies which make an organization successful and productive if carried too far lead to: • Lack of flexibility • Stifling of creativity • Confusion • Indecision • Reliance on tradition • Upper management ignoring lower levels
Productivity Bureaucratization Excessive Bureaucratization – “J” Curve (Caiden, 1994)
Vertical and Lateral Coordination Two Main Roots: • Scientific Management – designed to get the most from each worker, for every minute worked (Taylor, 1911, Fayol, 1949, Gulick, 1937 and Urwick, 1937) • Patriarchal systems – where father figure has absolute power, gives way to Monocratic Bureaucracy. • Bowman and Deal, 2003, p. 45-46.
Vertical • Fixed division of labor • Hierarchy of offices • Rules governing performance • Specific skills or ability • Employment is long term
Specification of Task • Knowledge or skill based • Units of time • Organized by product • Customer or client • Geography • By process
Lateral • Informal communication • Task forces • New technology can support lateral groups
Hierarchy • Formal structures enhance morale if it helps get the job done. • Hierarchy is best used if it provides opportunities to use workers’ skills. • Systems Thinking • Human systems are biological systems.
Simple Structure Example: Mom & Pop operation Positive: Simple/Flexible Negative: Distracted by daily operations; neglects long-range problems; capricious rewards; authority may block changes Machine Bureaucracy Example: McDonald’s Positive: efficient/effective; masters routine tasks Negative: boring; negatively effects employee motivation and initiative. Mintzberg’s Structural Configurations Adapted from Bolman and Deal, 2003 (www.leebolman.com)
Professional Bureaucracy Example: Harvard University Positive: professional, trained core; insulation from formal interference Negative: problematic coordination & quality control; slow response to external change Divisionalized Form Example: Campuses within university system Positive: ample resources; responsiveness without undue economic risks Negative: “cat-and-mouse” game between HQ and divisions; HQ may lose touch with operations Mintzberg’s Structural Configurations Adapted from Bolman and Deal, 2003 (www.leebolman.com)
Adhocracy Example: DEC Positive: encourages creativity; challenges tradition, legitimizes controversies Negative: Lack of timely coordinated shift may result in downfall More Circular than hierarchical Emphasis on lateral relationships rather than hierarchy Leadership at the center rather than at the top Web builds from the center out through a network of interconnections Example: Village Voice newspaper Positive: Strong sense of community Negative: Increasingly challenged as organization expands Mintzberg’s Structural Configurations Helgesen’s Web of Inclusion Adapted from Bolman and Deal, 2003 (www.leebolman.com)
Social Structure is: • Refers to relationships among social elements including people, positions, and the organizational units to which they belong (e.g., departments, divisions) (Mary Jo Hatch, 1997, p. 161).”
Social StructurePositive Aspects • Processes and relationships are human traits that infiltrate organizations and may determine their success. • Example: • The more complex the organization, the more communication is needed to collaborate and produce.
Social StructureNegative Aspects • When relationships and processes are the focus of an organization, time is then taken away from the actual functions of the organization. • Example: • If the majority of organizational development time is designated for relationships, the production procedures and necessary changes may be overlooked.
Structural Dilemmas Differentiation vs. Integration Gap vs. Overlap Underuse vs. Overload Lack of Clarity vs. Lack of Creativity Excessive Autonomy vs. Excessive Interdependence Too Loose vs.Too Tight Goalless vs. Goalbound Irresponsible vs. Unresponsive Bolman and Deal, 2003
Why Restructure? Positives—Organizational improvement in response to external change New leadership “stamp” Negatives— Demanding process Poor record of success
What is the Restructuring Process? Unfreezing Transition Refreezing Kurt Lewin, 1951
Restructuring: A Response to Change Change is an inevitable journey. All things are constantly changing, transforming, becoming something different. Guiding change so that it is successful is what leadership is all about. Indeed, the measure of a leader may well be her or his capacity to understand and deal successfully with change—to stimulate it, shape it, guide it, manage it, and keep it going in the right direction. California School Leadership Academy
References • Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2003). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. • Morgan, G. (1986).Images of organization. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. • Sergiovanni, T. J. (1989). Informing professional practice in educational administration. Journal of Educational Administration, 27(2), p. 186. • Taylor, F. W. (1911/1967). The principles of scientific management. New York: W. W. Norton. • Weber, M. (1930/1992). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism (A. Giddens, Trans.). New York: Routledge.