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Listener-Control Navigation of VoiceXML. Nuance Speech Analysis. 92% of customer service is through phone. 84% of industrialists believe speech better than web. History of VoiceXML. Bell/Lucent (’98). PML. PML. IBM (’98). SpeechML. VoiceXML Forum (’00). W3C (’02). AT&T (‘95).

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Listener-Control Navigation of VoiceXML


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nuance speech analysis
Nuance Speech Analysis
  • 92% of customer service is through phone.
  • 84% of industrialists believe speech better than web.
history of voicexml
History of VoiceXML

Bell/Lucent (’98)

PML

PML

IBM (’98)

SpeechML

VoiceXML Forum (’00)

W3C (’02)

AT&T (‘95)

VoiceXML 1.0

VoiceXML 2.0

HP (’98)

TalkML

Motorola (’98)

VoxML

voicexml
VoiceXML
  • Open standard-language for serving voice/audio documents.
  • VoiceXML is designed for creating audio dialogs that feature.
    • Synthesized speech, Digitized audio, Recognition of spoken and DTMF key input, Recording of spoken input, Telephony and Mixed-Initiative conversations.
voicexml cont d
VoiceXML (Cont’d)
  • VoiceXML allows scripts/CGIs etc.
  • Can take input from the listener via speech(fill out forms like in HTML).
  • Used extensively for automated call handling.
  • Makes info accessible over (cell) phones
  • The next revolution on the Web.
goals of voicexml
Goals of VoiceXML
  • Web development and content delivery into voice response applications.
  • Minimize client/server interactions.
  • Separate code from service logic.
  • Shield the application authors from platform specific details.
voice browser
Voice Browser
  • Software platform running on a network server.
  • It supports the following features.
    • ASR
    • DTMF
    • Recognition grammars
    • Mixed-initiative dialog
    • TTS
  • Voice browser:VoiceXML :: Web browser:HTML
sample voicexml code
Sample VoiceXML Code
  • <vxml version="2.0">

<form>

<field name="rich">

<grammar type=“application/x-gsl” mode = “voice”>

<![CDATA[[

[(yes)]{<option “yes”>}

[(no)]<option “no”>}

]]]>

</grammar>

<prompt>Would you like to get rich quick?</prompt>

<filled>Gotcha.

<if cond="rich==‘yes’">You want to be rich!

<goto next="rich.vxml" />

<else />

You don't want to be rich.

<goto next="poor.vxml" />

</if>

</filled>

</field>

</form>

</vxml>

problem with voicexml
Problem with VoiceXML
  • Navigation of the voice document.
  • Author has to ask where listener will like to go next.
  • Listener has absolutely no control over navigation.
  • Tedium, Adv.Applications not possible.
  • Analogy: Scroll vs book
solution
Solution
  • Allow users to control navigation interactively.
  • Using Voice Anchors.
voice anchors
Voice Anchors
  • Permit Speech labels that listeners can place on a dialog.
  • Listener can return to that dialog later by uttering that label.
  • Hard to implement, as free-form speech recognition is not possible.
  • Need to incorporate in the voice browser.
voice anchors1
Voice Anchors
  • We developed a number of methods for attaching voice anchors.
  • Most practical method: Spelling.
  • Anchor as a whole word.
  • Default anchors
  • Default navigation strategies
slide15

Recall

Anchor

Place

Anchors

Converter

Voice

browser

Initial

VXML

Augmented

VXML

New VXML

DB file

Creates a

DB file

cumulative anchors
Cumulative Anchors
  • Different dialogs can be marked with the same label.
  • Recalling the label reads out the corresponding dialogs.
  • Multiple cumulative anchors in a single document.
  • Allows creation of sub documents.
  • Hierarchy of sub documents can be created.
grammar
Grammar
  • Set of valid expressions.
  • Each dialog references one or more grammars.
  • Nuance Grammar Specification Language (GSL).
  • Inline grammar and Offline grammar.
    • Offline provides the following advantages:
      • Can be generated dynamically (via CGI’s, ASP's).
      • Reused by multiple dialogs or applications.
      • Updated and modified without change in source code.
  • Subgrammars and Form-level grammar.
sample grammar code
Sample Grammar code

<grammar type="application/x-gsl" mode="voice">

<![CDATA[

[

[(skip)]{<option "skip">}

[(previous)]{<option "previous">}

[(place anchor) (call mark) (begin mark)]{<option "mark">}

[(recall mark) (recall anchor) (recall)]{<option "recall">}

]

]]>

slide20

Get the

HTML page

Reference to another

link in

Augmented VXML

Translator

Converter

Initial

HTML

Initial

VXML

Augmented

VXML

Voice

browser

applications
Applications

Web access through voice.

  • This involves the following sequence of steps
    • HTML -> VXML
      • Translator written in java was already developed.
    • Navigation of VXML
applications1
Applications

Mathematics for visually impaired.

  • This involves the following steps.
    • MathML -> VXML.
      • A translator was developed to convert the MathML documents to VXML documents using the XSLT semantics.
    • Navigation of VXML.
conclusion future work
Conclusion & Future work
  • Designing default navigation strategies.
  • Unit of division for navigation.
  • Voice Scripting Languages.
    • Example: “repeat chlorine until exit”.