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Work, Leisure, and Retirement

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  1. Work, Leisure, and Retirement

  2. Traditional age-differentiated structure • Education – Work – Leisure • Now age-integrated • Education • Lifelong learning • Gain adaptive knowledge and skills • Train for new occupation • Understand technology • Develop retirement, liesure role

  3. Work • Careers • Choice of Vocation • Influences?

  4. Family • Opportunities (SES, occupational status) • Socialization (values) • Mother’s employment status (women) • Early work experiences (attitudes) • University experiences

  5. Interest/Work Match • Holland’s Person-Environment Fit Model • personality characteristics and success in occupation • moderate but significant relationship • stable throughout adulthood

  6. Contextual Factors • Marital/Family commitments • Economy

  7. Donald Super: Stages in career planning • Crystallization: vague, general • Early adolescence • Specification: being focus • Late adolescence/university • Implementation: try outs • Young adults • Establishment

  8. Super: stages • Consolidation • Maintenance • Deceleration • Retirement

  9. Career Development Early Career • early professional socialization • forming a “dream” (Daniel Levinson) • goal expectation • career satisfaction (intrinsic, extrinsic factors) • reality shock and mentorship • self ethic vs. work ethic • focus on quality of own work (control) • reduced loyalty, commitment

  10. Middle Career settling down • taking stock of “dream” • increased autonomy • Spillover effects: • Multiple roles (enhancement, stress) • positive, negative • job strain and stress (high demand, low control) • decreased immune function • poor health habits • mental health (depression, anxiety)

  11. Women and Minorities • occupational segregation (service/clerical) • lower income • dual career, dual earner couples • underrepresentation in managerial/professional positions

  12. Late Career and Retirement • Normative life event in recent history • Retirement in popular culture? • Valid images? • Why?

  13. Decision to retire • Adequate retirement benefits (financial security) • Leisure interests • Spouse retiring • Declining health • Routine, boring job • Low work commitment

  14. Retirement: Modern Phenomenon • 1900: 68% over 65 working • 1960: 30% • 1985: 16% (1/2 = part time)

  15. Why the shift? • Personal resources • Previous: work until death/disability • no safety net • Retirement requires: • Productive economy • Public/private pension • First government pension: Germany, 1889 • Retirement age: 65 • Lower life expectancy

  16. Canada Pension Plan • 1930s • Response to growing unemployment and poverty among elderly • Cheap labour (immigration) • Displacement (technology) • Great Depression • Age discrimination • Pension Plans: employment incentive

  17. Retirement as a Life Stage • Not poverty • Addresses problem of youth unemployment • Leisure for elderly

  18. Impact of Retirement • Adjustment • Atchley (1976): Stage Model • Honeymoon • Disenchantment • Reorientation • Termination • Much individual difference • Bridge jobs

  19. Adjustment • Crisis Theory • Retirement correlates with loss of • Health • Status • Self esteem • But supporting research did not control for pre-retirement characteristics

  20. Adjustment • Continuity Theory • Identity based on more than work • Attitudes, activities changed minimally after retirement

  21. General Characteristics of Adaptation • Individual variation in responses • Coping ability depends on previous coping skills, perceptions (challenge vs. threat) • Adaptation easier when: • Voluntary vs. forced retirement • Change is minimized (bridge job) • Transition is gradual • Personal resources critical (income, health, social support, high occupation level)

  22. Busy Ethic • Idealization and expectation of retired life • Retirement manages socially, morally • Authority from Work Ethic • Therapeutic value of activity • Encourages habit of engagement • Continuous with general cultural prescriptions for adulthood • Legitimates leisure of retirement

  23. Busy Ethic • Defends retired people against judgments of senescence • Gives definition to retirement role • Helps individuals adapt to retirement • Adapts retirement to prevailing societal norms