Ch.3. Water Quality. What is WQ? Physical, chemical, biological characteristics of water Appropriateness of water properties for a given usage purpose Water usage? Drinking Other household usage (shower, gardening, laundry, cooking, etc.) Agriculture Industry Leisure Others.
Ch.3. Water Quality • What is WQ? • Physical, chemical, biological characteristics of water • Appropriateness of water properties for a given usage purpose • Water usage? • Drinking • Other household usage (shower, gardening, laundry, cooking, etc.) • Agriculture • Industry • Leisure • Others
WQ criteria: The levels of the constituents (including pollutants) and other parameters indicating the water quality. The criteria can be set • For inorganic parameters: • Anionic components: F, Cl, SO4, NO3, PO4 • Cationic components: All the metals, including heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, As, Se, Hg, etc. • Neutral coponents: Si, O2 • For organic parameters: TDS, color, COD etc. • For (micro)biological parameters: Coliforms, Salmonella, Viruses etc. • For pesticides: Diazinon, Parathion, etc. • For radio nuclides: 226Ra, 228Ra, alpha particle activity etc.
WQ standards: Sets of recommended (maximum) levels of the criteria to secure the purpose of the water use • Drinking water standards • WHO, USEPA, EU, ROK (see the Table on the next page) • Surface water standards • Groundwater standards • Groundwater quality standard of ROK • WQ standard for finfish • WQ standard for paddy rice • etc
Drinking water standards of The Republic of Korea From http://moohee21.com.ne.kr/NCWP.html
WQ standard for finfish (Australia) From http://en.engormix.com/MA-aquaculture/articles/aquaculture-water-quality-disease-t1160/165-p0.htm
Potential health effects from ingestion of water • Inorganic • As: Skin damage; circulatory system problems; increased risk of cancer • Pb: Infants and children-delays in physical or mental development. Adults-kidney problems; high blood pressure From http://colonelspeaks.wordpress.com/tag/mass-poisoning/
Arsenic (As) poisoning From http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/health10/overview.html From http://atlas-emergency-medicine.org.ua/ch.12.htm
Lead (Pb) poisoning From http://www.revolutionhealth.com/articles/x-ray-of-lead-poisoning-in-a-child/zm6084 Image courtesy of Paul Traughber, M.D., Boise, Idaho. This X-ray shows white bands of lead collected in the growth plates of the knee joints of a child
Cd: ‘Itai-Itai’ disease, kidney damage From http://pollutionpictures.blogspot.com/
Hg: ‘Minamata’ disease, kidney damage From http://healthandenergy.com/air_pollution_health_effects.htm / Son With Birth Defects Due to Mercury Poisoning
Researchers say in some villages nearly all adults suffer skeletal fluorosis. China. • F: Bone disease (pain and tenderness of the bones); Children may get mottled teeth. From http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/1994/102-2/focus.html From http://curezone.com/forums/fm.asp?i=919190
NO3, NO2: "Blue baby syndrome" in infants under six months - life threatening without immediate medical attention. Symptoms: Infant looks blue and has shortness of breath. From http://www.bluebabysyndrome.org/87/how-to-identify-blue-baby-syndrome/ / Fingertips get swollen. Medically this is called as “Clubbing