1600-1700 Review. Zack Funk Harrison Holtslander Kristina Liskiewicz Ariana Miraglia. Important General Terms and Concepts. Women. Women were seen as homemakers, caretakers, and an influential religious instructor for children in Protestant homes. Acceptable jobs outside the home Nun
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Roman Catholicism contains a number of doctrines which Protestants view as unbiblical, such as the doctrine of Transubstantiation, the veneration and intercession of deceased saints, prayers for the dead, purgatory, the immaculate conception and bodily assumption of Mary, and papal infallibility.
Galileo:-The Heliocentric Theory (Sun was the center of universe) was widely disapproved by Catholics
Galileo stood trial for heresy in 1633 after he published his book, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World System, which discussed the theory.
-PhilosophaeNaturalis Principia Mathematicadescribes universal gravitation and the three laws of motion.
-Other works include the principles of conservation related to momentum and angular momentum, the refraction of light, an empirical law of cooling, the building of the first practical telescope.
-Founder of Modern Anatomy
- De HumaniCommisFabrica (On the Structure of the Human Body) is one of the most important works about human anatomy.
William Harvey:-His works include An Anatomical Study of the Motion of the Heart and of the Blood in Animals (blood circulation) and Essays on the Generation of Animals (embryology)
- Famous for correctly explained the process of blood circulation in our bodies and the role of heart
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
- “The Father of Microbiology” and one of the first microscopists in history
-Discovered protozoa and created the first-ever description of red blood cell.
-English clockmaker and carpenter
-Invented the marine chronometer in order to establish a position of a ship at sea
-Most noted works are “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding”, “Two Treatises of Government”, and “A Letter Concerning Toleration”.
-Shaped both the American Constitution and the French Revolution and laid the groundwork for liberal political thought.
-a French philosopher and writer best known for his seminal work Historical and Critical Dictionary-Advocated a separation between the spheres of faith and reason and the principle of the toleration of divergent beliefs
Baron de Montesquieu-Famous for his theory of “seperation of powers” in government.
-His work Spirit of The Laws placed an emphasis on environmental influences being material conditions for life.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau-An advocate for the “general will” of the people
-His beliefs majorly influenced the French Revolution- Discourse on the Origin of Inequality and On the Social Contract impacted modern political and social thought.
-Advocated freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state.-Criticized and attacked the Catholic Church
-best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor of, and contributor to the Encyclopédie.
-His novel, Jacques the Fatalist and his Master examined the idea of free will.
Cesare de Beccaria
-Best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments, which condemned torture and the death penalty, and was a founding work in the field of penology.
-His Economic Table provided the foundations of the ideas of the Physiocrats
-First work to attempt to describe the workings of the economy in an analytical way
-Father of Modern Economics
-Best known for Wealth of Nations (free economy)and The Theory of Moral Sentiments (discusses morality)
-Neoclassical economists believe in his “invisible hand” theory
Madame de Geoffrin
-Leading female figure in the French Enlightenment
-Her actions as a Parisian salonnière exemplify many of the most important characteristics of Enlightenment sociability.
Madame de Staël
-A French-Swiss woman of letters and novelist that greatly influenced European thought and literature with her enthusiasm for German romanticism.
Mary Wollstonecraft-Her most famous work was A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Jean de Condorcet-a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist whose Condorcet method in voting tally selects the candidate who would beat each of the other candidates in a run-off election.
Immanuel Kant-Argued that human perception structures natural laws, and that reason is the source of morality-The Critique of Pure Reason aimed to unite reason with experience to move beyond what he took to be failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics.
-His 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory
book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory