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Principles of Animal Physiology. Circulatory Systems. Introduction. Components of circulatory systems Fluid - contains transport molecules and cells (blood or hemolymph) Pump - to move the fluid around Conduits (vessels) - to carry the fluid between pump and body tissues.

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principles of animal physiology
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Introduction

  • Components of circulatory systems
    • Fluid - contains transport molecules and cells (blood or hemolymph)
    • Pump - to move the fluid around
    • Conduits (vessels) - to carry the fluid between pump and body tissues
principles of animal physiology1
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Introduction

  • Types of circulatory systems
principles of animal physiology2
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Introduction

  • Open and Closed systems
    • Open circulation
      • Contains Hemolymph
      • Hemolymph moves from vessels to extracellular spaces among tissues
      • Hemocoel - extracellular spaces containing hemolymph
      • Hemolymph may be moved by body movements, cilia or flagella, or by hearts
principles of animal physiology3
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Introduction

  • Circulation in an open system
principles of animal physiology4
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Introduction

  • Open and Closed systems
    • Colsed circulation
      • Contains Blood
      • Blood moves through vessels but not among tissues
      • Capillaries - exchange of materials occur
      • Blood moved about the body by the heart or by body movements
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Introduction

  • Ciruclation in a closed system
principles of animal physiology6
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Fluids

  • Two components to circulatory fluids
    • Plasma
      • Watery, containing dissolved and dispersed molecules
    • Cellular elements
      • In hemolymph
        • Hemocytes - various cell types
          • Responsible for immune functions, clotting, oxygen transport
        • Blood
          • Erythrocytes - red blood cells for transporting oxygen
          • Leukocytes - white blood cells for immune response
          • Thrombocytes for platelets - for clotting
principles of animal physiology7
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Fluids

  • The Hematocrit
    • Percent of packed cell volume in whole blood
      • Human - 45% in males; 42% in females
      • White whale - 53% in females; 52% in males
      • Pekin duck - 45% at seal level; 56% at high altitude
      • Sriped bass - 39% at 5°C; 53% at 25°C
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Introduction

  • Plasma and Hematocrit volumes
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Fluids

  • Plasma in Circulatory Fluids
    • Contains 90% or more water
    • A medium for carrying organic and inorganic substances
    • Plasma proteins - 6-8% of plasma weight -osmotic pressure and buffering
    • Most abundant electrolytes - Na+, Cl-, HCO3-, K+, and Ca++
    • Nutrients - glucose, amino acids, lipids, and vitamins
    • Waste - creatinine, bilirubin, urea
    • Dissolved gases
    • Hormones
principles of animal physiology10
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Fluids

  • Erythrocytes
    • Transport oxygen
    • Transport carbon dioxide
    • Oblong oval or biconcaved flattened discs
    • Flexible
    • Contain no nucleus, orgennelles, or ribosomes
    • Contain plasma and hemoglobin
    • Does not use the oxygen that they carry
    • Lifespan - 100 to 120 days
principles of animal physiology11
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Fluids

  • Erythrocytes
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Fluids

  • Blood Cell Production (Hemopoiesis)
principles of animal physiology13
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Pumps
    • Flagella
      • Fluid moved by beating epithelial cells
    • Extrinsic muscle or skeletal pumps
      • Fluid moved by motion of skeletal muscles
      • May occur during locomotion
    • Peristaltic muscle pumps
      • Occurs during contraction of vessel muscle walls
    • Chamber muscle pumps
      • Hearts
      • Most have at least two chambers
principles of animal physiology14
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Types of pumps in animals
principles of animal physiology15
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Two chambered heart
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Dual Pumps in Avian and Mammalian Hearts
    • 4 chambers - 2 atria and 2 ventricles
    • Atria receive and store blood
    • Ventricles pump blood away from the heart
    • Veins return blood to the heart
    • Arteries take blood away from the heart
    • Septum is muscular tissue that separates the two sides of the heart
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Dual Pumps
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

  • Atria - holding chambers
  • Ventricles - produce pressure to drive blood through system
  • Arteries - low-resistance, little pressure loss, pressure resevoirs
  • Arterioles - high resistance, regulate blood pressure, distribute blood to various organs
  • Capillaries - site for nutrient and waste product exchange
  • Venules - nutrient and waste product exchange, regulates capillary blood pressure
  • Veins - low resistance conduits, facilitates flow back to the heart
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Heart Valves Ensure Unidirectional Blood Flow
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • The Mammalian Heart
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Blood flow through mammalian heart
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • The Mammalian Ventricles
    • Myocardium
    • Epicardium
    • Epicardium
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Mechanism of Valve Action
principles of animal physiology24
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Organization of Mammalian Cardiac Muscle Fibers
    • Intercalated discs
    • Desmosomes
    • Gap junctions
    • Functional syncytium
    • Myoglobin
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Conducting Pathway in Mammalian Heart
    • SA node
    • Internodal pathway
    • AV node
    • Bundle of His
    • Left & Right bundle branches
    • Purkinje fibers
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Conducting Pathway in Mammalian Heart
principles of animal physiology27
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Pacemaker Activity in Cardiac Autorhythmic Cells
    • Pacemaker cells
      • SA node
      • AV node
      • Bundle of His
      • Purkinje fibers
    • Pacemaker potential
      • Decrease in outward K+ current
      • Constant inward Na+ current
      • Increase in inward Ca++ current
    • Depolarization
      • Continued inward Na+ current
      • Influx of Ca++
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Pacemaker Activity of Cardiac Autorhythmic Cells
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Action Potential of Contractile Cardiac Muscle Cells
    • RMP about -90 mV
    • Rising phase - influx of Na+
    • Initial repolarization - ↓PNA+; ↑PCa2+; ↓PK+
    • Plateau - slow inward Ca2+ current; decreased K+ efflux
    • Repolarization - inactivation of Ca2+ channels; increase outward K+ current
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Action Potential and Tension Development in Cardiac Contractile Muscle Cell
    • Refractory period
    • Tetanus
principles of animal physiology31
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Action Potential of Contractile Cardiac Muscle Cells
principles of animal physiology32
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Comparison of action potential in different regions of the heart
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • The Electrocardiogram
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Mechanical Events of Mammalian Cardiac Cycle
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Mechanical Events of Mammalian Cardiac Cycle
    • Early Ventriclular Diastole
    • Late Ventricular Diastole
    • End of Ventricular Diastole - end-diastolic volume
    • Onset of Ventricular Systole
    • Isovolumetirc Venticular Contraction
    • Ventricular Ejection
    • End of Ventricular Systole - end systolic volume
    • Onset of Ventricular Diastole
      • Dicrotic notch
    • Isovolumetric Ventricular Relaxation
    • Ventricular Filling
principles of animal physiology36
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • The Cardiac Output
    • Cardiac out (CO) = volume of blood pumped by each ventricle per minute

CO = HR x SV, HR = heart rate, SV = stroke volume

Starling’s law of the heart

    • Increased filling pressure (volume) leads to increased cardiac output
    • If HR = 72 beats/min, SV= 0.07L/beat, then

CO = 72 beats/min X 0.07L/min

= 5.0 L/min

principles of animal physiology37
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • Autonomic innervation of the heart
principles of animal physiology38
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Pumps

  • ACh
  • ↑APs interval of pacemaker cells →↓ HR
        • Negative chronotropic effect
  • ↓Velocity of conduction, may lead to AV
    • block → ectopic pacemaker
  • Nor(epinephrine)
    • ↑ heart rate via pacemaker cells
        • Positive chronotropic effect
    • ↑ strength of contraction (myocardial cells)
        • Positive inotropic effect
principles of animal physiology39
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

  • Autonomic control of SA node activity and heart rate
principles of animal physiology40
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

  • Control of cardiac output
principles of animal physiology41
Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

  • Summary of factors influencing cardiac output
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

  • Blood pressure in various blood vessels of the systemic circulation
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Principles of Animal Physiology

Circulatory Systems

  • Relation btw. Velocity of blood flow and Xsectional area of vascular tree