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Prejudice Quotes. “Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and narrow-mindedness.” --- Mark Twain “Few prople are capable of expressing with equanimity opinions which differ from the prejudices of their social environment” --- Albert Einstein

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Prejudice Quotes

“Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and narrow-mindedness.”

--- Mark Twain

“Few prople are capable of expressing with equanimity opinions which differ from the prejudices of their social environment” --- Albert Einstein

“He flattered himself on being a man without any prejudices; and this pretension itself is a very great prejudice” --- Anatole France

“Prejudice is a great time saver. You can form opinions without having to get the facts” --- E. B. White

Prejudices are rarely overcome by argument; not being founded in reason they cannot be destroyed by logic” --- Tryon Edwards



(Generalized beliefs about the characteristics of a group – good or bad)


(Dislike based on faulty and inflexible generalizations; either felt or expressed. It may be directed toward a group as a whole or toward individuals because of their group membership)


(Different treatment of people based on their membership of a group)


Prejudice and Discrimination

  • Types (just about anything):
  • Gender
  • Race
  • Age
  • Religion
  • Attractiveness (and height & weight)
  • Accent
  • Hair color
  • Sexual orientation
  • Social economic status (e.g., money)
  • Disability
  • Nationality

Development of Prejudice

  • Socialization
  • Parents, peers, media
  • Relative status and competition
  • Social identity theory (e.g., In versus Out-Groups)
  • Cognitive processes (e.g., information processing, decision making)
  • Negative behavior (more memorable, influential); minority status (distinctive)

Gender Discrimination Examples

  • Voting rights (Granted in 1920) link
  • Jury service (not until S.C. Case in 1975 that service could not be confined to men)
  • Access to athletics (title ix in 1972)
    • [Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the united states or by any state on account of sex]
  • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act [gender introduced to defeat the bill; Executive order 11246]
  • Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) [focus on maternity leave]
  • Medical insurance coverage (e.g., birth control, examinations)
  • Sexual harassment (1986 supreme court case; damage and liability limitations)

Measurement of Attitudes

~ Some Attitudes Towards Women Scale Items ~

  • The initiation of dating should come mostly from a man.
  • Intoxication among women is worse that intoxication among men.
  • The satisfaction of a husband’s sexual desire is a fundamental obligation of every wife.
  • Women should be as free to initiate marriage as men.
  • The intellectual leadership of a community should largely be in the hands of men.
  • Swearing and obscenity is more repulsive in the speech of a woman than a man.
  • Women should worry less about their rights and more about becoming good wives and mothers.
  • A wife should make every effort to minimize irritation and inconvenience in the male head of the family.

Measurement of Attitudes (cont.)

~ Sample Ageism Scale Items ~

  • Most old people get set in their ways and are unable to change
  • It is foolish to claim that wisdom somes with old age
  • Most old people tend to let their homes become shabby and unattractive
  • Most old people spend too much time prying into the affairs
  • of others and giving unsought advice
  • Most old people should be more concerned with their personal appearance; they’re too untidy
  • If old people expect to be liked, their first step is to try to get rid of their irritating faults
  • Old people have too much power in business and politics
  • Most old people make me feel ill at ease

Presentation of Females in the Media

  • G-rated Films (Family Films)
  • Males outnumber females 3 to 1 (In G,, PG, PG-13, R-rated: 2.7 to 1 males or 73%)
  • TV for children 11 and under: males 2x more prevalent
  • 83% of the narrators are male
  • 85.5% of characters are White, 4.8% are Black, and 9.7 from other ethnic backgrounds (e.g., Hispanic, Asian)
  • Females are almost four times as likely as males to be shown in sexy attire (In G, PG, PG-13), R-rated: females 5x more likely to be shown in revealing attire and 3x more likely to be shown with a thin figure)
  • Animation versus live action: females more likely to have small waists (37% vs. 6.9) and unrealistic body type (22.7% vs. 1.2%)
  • From 2006 to 2009 not one female character was depicted in G-rated family films in the field of medical science, as a business leader, in the law, or in politics.
  • 80.5% of all working characters are male and 19.5% are female, which is a contrast to real-world statistics of women comprising 50% of the workforce
  • Only 7% of directors, 13% of writers, and 20% of producers are female

Figures based on studies conducted by Dr. Stacy Smith, Ph.D. at the USC Annenberg School for Communication & Journalism (Gender stereotypes: An analysis of popular films and TV; 2008)


Commercials in Prime Time (speaking roles)

White 83.3%

Black 12.4%

Asian 2.3%

Latino 1.0%

Native American .4%

Source: Mastro & Stern (2003) Representations of race in television commercials: A content analysis of prime-time advertising. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media


Television Images (cont.)


Sherif’s Robbers Cave (Boys Camp) Study

  • Introduction of competition (e.g., baseball, football, tug-of-war)

Result ---

  • Open hostility to out-group members
  • Greater in-group solidarity

Sherif (cont.)

  • ~ Group Development ~
  • Leaders selected
  • Nicknames chosen
  • Division of labor established
  • Norms emerged
  • Sanctions developed

Sherif (cont.)

Ineffective solutions ---

  • Increased social contact between group members
  • Presentation of accurate/favorable information about the other group
  • Bring leaders together
  • Attend religious services

Solution --

Work on common goals; everyone has to work together (e.g., break in water main, car problems, $ for movie)



  • Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination
  • Key Factors
  • Support of Authority
  • Equal Status Contact
  • Work on Common Goals
  • (e.g., Sherif’s work and cooperative classrooms)

Jigsaw Classroom

[For specific steps see:]

Timeframe ---

45 minutes, 3 times/week

Process: Each person is given information to present to the group that is valuable to find a solution to a given problem

Jigsaw Classroom Results
  • Increased liking for classmates
  • Increased self-esteem
  • Increased liking for school
  • Decreased negative ethnic stereotypes
  • Higher scores on standardized tests

Additional Jigsaw Classroom Results

  • Greater participation in school activities
  • Greater ability to role-take (empathize with others)
  • Different attributions for success & failure (i.e., more external attributions for failures of others; avoidance of fundamental attribution error)

Female Attractiveness and Support for the Feminist Movement

30 photos of women rated in terms of attractiveness (5-point scale)

Procedure -- Place 15 pictures into each pile

Do not support feminist


Support feminist movement

  • Results ---
  • Less attractive females perceived as feminist
  • No differences between males & females
  • no effect of rater attitudes regarding women's liberation

Female Attractiveness and Corporate Success











Rated on various factors (e.g., ability, integrity, likeability)

  • Key is perception of levels of femininity. If highly feminine, not seen as very capable.

Female Traits and Leadership

Rate traits of

typical males

Rate traits of

typical females

Rate traits of typical of leaders

Male traits seen as similar to leadership traits


Female Representation in Business

  • 12 Fortune 500 companies are run by women (2011)
  • Source:

Female Representation in Academics

  • In 2007, 23% of university presidents are female, more than double the 9.5% in 1986, but only 2% more than 2001
  • Women hold 24% of full professorships in the United States

Women in the U.S. Senate 2012 (N = 16 out of 100)



Claire McCaskill

Diane Feinstein

Barbara Boxer

Kay Bailey Hutchinson

Olympia Snowe

Mary Landrieu

Susan Collins

Jeanne Shaheen

Maria Cantwell

Kay Hagan

Kirsten Gillibrand

Patty Murray

Debbie Stabenow

Lisa Murkowski

Amy Klobuchar


Current Female Heads of State Worldwide



Female Heads of State



Constitution of the Iroquois Nations: The Great Binding Law

31. If a Lord of the Confederacy should become seriously ill and be thought near death, the women who are heirs of his titleshall go to his house and lift his crown of deer antlers, the emblem of his Lordship, and place them at one side. If the Creator spares him and he rises from his bed of sickness he may rise with the antlers on his brow.

44. The lineal descent of the people of the Five Nations shall run in the female line. Women shall be considered the progenitors of the Nation. They shall own the land and the soil. Men and women shall follow the status of the mother.

45. The women heirs of the Confederated Lordship titles shall be called Royaneh (Noble) for all time to come.

46. The women of the Forty Eight (now fifty) Royaneh families shall be the heirs of the Authorized Names for all time to come.

47. If the female heirs of a Confederate Lord's title become extinct, the title right shall be given by the Lords of the Confederacy to the sister family whom they shall elect and that family shall hold the name and transmit it to their (female) heirs, but they shall not appoint any of their sons as a candidate for a title until all the eligible men of the former family shall have died or otherwise have become ineligible.

90. When the Five Nations' Council declares war any Lord of the Confederacy may enlist with the warriors by temporarily renouncing his sacred Lordship title which he holdsthrough the election of his women relatives. The title then reverts to them and they may bestow it upon another temporarily until the war is over when the Lord, if living, may resume his title and seat in the Council.

94. The men of every clan of the Five Nations shall have a Council Fire ever burning in readiness for a council of the clan. When it seems necessary for a council to be held to discuss the welfare of the clans, then the men may gather about the fire. This council shall have the same rights as the council of the women.


Prejudice and Behavior (Race Discrimination)

 Shoving incident (during a debate)

Black shoves white person = 75% defined it as act of violence

White shoves black person = 17% defined it as act of violence

  • Whites interviewed black applicants
    • More distance
    • Less eye contact
    • Less open
    • Blacks viewed less well
  • Whites interviewers treated white applicants the same way as blacks
    • White applicants viewed less well

Effect of Name on Resumes and

Interview Rates

50% less chance of being invited for an interview versus “Whites” with high qualifications


Age and Interview Questions






Asked easier questions than those who were younger



Age and Job Performance

  • Widespread belief that performance decreases with age
  • Little evidence of this decline ---
    • Meta-analysis found that older workers are equal to younger individuals on objective performance measures but scored lower on subjective, supervisor ratings
    • Evidence that older employees are more responsible, productive, and have less turnover
    • Organization with all employees over 50had 18% greater profits, 16% less turnover, 40% less absenteeism, and 60% less inventory los (theft?) versus similar companies with younger workers

*** Also, part of this was due to rater ageism and attributional stability scores

From: Rupp, Vodanovich, & Crede (2006)


Effect of Labels

Randomly assigned labels


Army recruits


  • This group had better performance scores on various measures
  • Also viewed their leaders as more effective


> > > Self-fulfilling prophecy at work (leaders spent more time with the “high” expectation group)


~ Social Identity Theory ~

[In-Group Bias]

They tendency to link one’s self-concept and self esteem with the status and/or behavior of groups

Also, people tend to reward members of ingroups (e.g., Minimal Group Paradigm) ---


Basking in Reflected Glory ---

Favorite Football Team wins --- “We”; More likely to wear team t-shirt

Favorite Football Team loses --- “They”


Perceived similarity

In and Out-Groups Bias

  • Selection to the in-group
  • Ability
  • Responsibility
  • 3) Trust



  • Less desirable jobs
  • Less time spent with supervisor
  • Treated formally
  • Lower performance evaluations
  • Less rewards
  • Liking, spend time with leader
  • Challenging, visible jobs
  • Better memory for good behavior
  • Treated warmly
  • Performance evaluations
  • Allocation of rewards