explanations of prejudice l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Explanations of prejudice PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Explanations of prejudice

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 24

Explanations of prejudice - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 571 Views
  • Uploaded on

Explanations of prejudice. Authoritarian personality Stereotyping Realistic conflict theory Social identity theory. psychlotron.org.uk. Authoritarian personality. Prejudice is caused by psychological processes within the individual Prejudiced people have a particular personality type.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Explanations of prejudice' - Ava


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
explanations of prejudice
Explanations of prejudice
  • Authoritarian personality
  • Stereotyping
  • Realistic conflict theory
  • Social identity theory

psychlotron.org.uk

authoritarian personality
Authoritarian personality
  • Prejudice is caused by psychological processes within the individual
  • Prejudiced people have a particular personality type

psychlotron.org.uk

authoritarian personality3
Authoritarian personality
  • Personality traits:
    • Status oriented
    • Conventional and conformist
    • Suspicious & hostile
  • Caused by:
    • Harsh and punitive upbringing resulting in repressed hostility towards parents – this is displaced onto ‘inferior’ people

psychlotron.org.uk

authoritarian personality4
Authoritarian personality
  • Adorno et al (1950)
  • Developed attitude scales to measure authoritarianism (F-Scale), anti-Semitism & ethnocentrism
  • Found significant +ve correlations:
    • F-Scale w/anti-Semitism: +0.8
    • F-Scale w/ethnocentrism: +0.65
  • Shows strong relationship between authoritarianism & prejudice

psychlotron.org.uk

authoritarian personality5
Authoritarian personality
  • Problems with Adorno et al’s research:
    • F-Scale consisted only of positive items – response bias?
    • Theory developed using projective attitude measures – researcher bias?
    • Correlation does not prove causation – authoritarianism & prejudice may occur together, but it doesn’t follow that one causes the other

psychlotron.org.uk

authoritarian personality6
Authoritarian personality
  • Problems with the theory:
    • Prejudice within a society can change very quickly – e.g. Germany in 1930s, US following Pearl Harbor – not consistent with Adorno’s idea that prejudice always goes back to childhood.
    • Cannot easily account for prejudice affecting large groups/whole societies e.g. South Africa under apartheid

psychlotron.org.uk

stereotyping
Stereotyping
  • Prejudice is caused by psychological processes within the individual, but linked to influences from society
  • Prejudice arises because people have a tendency to think in ways that minimise mental effort

psychlotron.org.uk

stereotyping8
Stereotyping
  • Stereotypes = a sort of mental shorthand for making sense of people:
    • People classified as belonging to groups defined by a single characteristic
    • All members of group assumed to have same characteristics/behaviour
    • Content of stereotypes is learned from society (family, peers etc.)
  • Prejudice is the result of negative stereotyping

psychlotron.org.uk

stereotyping9
Stereotyping
  • Once acquired, stereotypes tend to be self-confirming because:
    • We may avoid members of groups we stereotype
    • We tend to ignore or ‘explain away’ info that is inconsistent with stereotypes
    • We may act in ways (rude, hostile) that cause others to behave consistently with our stereotypes

psychlotron.org.uk

stereotyping10
Stereotyping
  • Jane Eliot’s study of prejudice (blue eyes-brown eyes)
    • Brown eyed children told they were better, smarter, given privileges;
    • Brown eyes assumed superior attitude; blue eyes started to perform poorly
  • Shows how quickly stereotypes start shaping attitudes & behaviour

psychlotron.org.uk

stereotyping11
Stereotyping
  • Greenberg & Pyzczynsky (1985)
    • White students rated performance of Black debaters more poorly than White if they had heard a racist comment
    • Stereotypes increase prejudice but only when activated
  • Minard (1952)
    • Stereotypes can be suppressed but only when social norms support this

psychlotron.org.uk

stereotyping12
Stereotyping
  • Stereotypes often accompany & support prejudice but may not cause it
    • Social processes (e.g. group norms) influence the expression of stereotyped thinking
    • Jane Eliot’s study is consistent with other theories (esp. social identity)

psychlotron.org.uk

realistic conflict theory
Realistic conflict theory
  • Prejudice is caused by social processes occurring between groups of people
  • Prejudice causes changes in individual thinking (e.g. stereotyping) but these are strongly linked to group processes

psychlotron.org.uk

realistic conflict theory14
Realistic conflict theory
  • Prejudice arises when two or more social groups compete for the same scarce/valued resource
    • Inbuilt tendency to favour in-group members; become hostile toward out-group members
    • Deny resources to out-group thereby ensuring greater share for in-group/self

psychlotron.org.uk

realistic conflict theory15
Realistic conflict theory
  • Sherif et al (1961): the ‘Robber’s Cave’ study
    • Competition & conflict artificially stimulated between two groups of boys at a summer camp
    • Resulted in negative stereotyping of out-group; hostile and aggressive acts toward out-group members
    • Prejudice persisted even after competition ended

psychlotron.org.uk

realistic conflict theory16
Realistic conflict theory
  • Questions over the validity of the Robber’s Cave study:
    • Unrepresentative samples (US American boys; limited numbers)?
    • Contrived & artificial situation?
  • Competition does not always create prejudice (e.g. Tyerman & Spencer’s study with UK scouts)

psychlotron.org.uk

realistic conflict theory17
Realistic conflict theory
  • RCT predicts that prejudice should intensify during times of economic hardship. This confirmed many times:
    • Dollard (1938) prejudice against German immigrants in US town increased as jobs grew scarce
    • Jacobs & Landau (1971) US prejudice against Chinese increased & decreased in line with prosperity & competition

psychlotron.org.uk

realistic conflict theory18
Realistic conflict theory
  • Competition certainly increases prejudice. However:
    • Prejudice can exist in the absence of competition (e.g. apartheid South Africa)
    • Competition does not automatically lead to prejudice; it depends on the nature & relationship of the groups involved (Tyerman & Spencer, 1983)

psychlotron.org.uk

social identity theory
Social identity theory
  • Prejudice is caused by social processes occurring between groups of people
  • It happens because of the way our sense of self (identity) is determined by the groups we belong to

psychlotron.org.uk

social identity theory20
Social identity theory
  • We derive our identity in part from the social groups we belong to (culture, religion, profession, football team…)
    • Consequently, we feel better about ourselves when we feel good about our social groups
    • We get to feel good about our social groups by comparing them favourably with other groups

psychlotron.org.uk

social identity theory21
Social identity theory
  • Prejudice is a strategy for achieving & maintaining self-esteem:
    • We will tend to be biased towards in-group members and against out-group members
    • We will pay more attention to criteria that make our in-groups look better than salient out-groups

psychlotron.org.uk

social identity theory22
Social identity theory
  • Tajfel et al (1982) assigned schoolboys to ‘meaningless’ groups; allowed them to allocate points/money to own & other group
    • PPs always chose a strategy that would allocate less to other group than to own even when this meant getting less overall for their own group
  • Shows in-group bias in the absence of competition & with only a ‘minimal group’

psychlotron.org.uk

social identity theory23
Social identity theory
  • Favouritism towards in-group:
    • Levine et al (2005) – Man-U & Liverpool fans more likely to help an injured person if wearing own team’s colours
    • Football fans – self-esteem linked to team performance; tendency to denigrate other teams/fans (esp. if local); tendency to emphasise other ways of being superior if team doing poorly (e.g. ‘Chelsea fans are glory hunters, not real fans’ etc.)

psychlotron.org.uk

social identity theory24
Social identity theory
  • Plenty of support for main propositions. Two main problems:
    • Tendency to favour in-group may be culturally specific, not universal (Wetherall, 1982)
    • Most studies show bias towards in-group – not necessarily the same thing as prejudice

psychlotron.org.uk