UML as a Modeling Tool
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UML as a Modeling Tool for Developing an Agent-based Auction System Arnold Aribowo ( Department of Computer Engineering, Pelita Harapan University, Indonesia ) Maria Indrawan ( CSSE, Monash University, Australia ). Outline. Buying Model Negotiation Types UML Notations

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UML as a Modeling Tool for Developing an Agent-basedAuction SystemArnold Aribowo(Department of Computer Engineering, Pelita Harapan University, Indonesia)Maria Indrawan(CSSE, Monash University, Australia)


  • Buying Model

  • Negotiation Types

  • UML Notations

  • UML Activity diagrams for Auction Protocol

  • Conclusion and future works

Buying model


Product identification

Product selection

Buying Model


Product consummation

Payment authorization

Product delivery

Order placement

Post purchase

After sales services

Negotiation types
Negotiation Types

  • Distributive Negotiation (win-lose)

    • One issue is negotiated.

    • Parties involved have opposing interests.

    • Agreement does not need to satisfy joint gains for both parties.

  • Integrative Negotiation (win-win)

    • Multiple issues are negotiated.

    • Parties involved have different preferences towards these issues.

    • Agreement need to satisfy joint gains for both parties.

Type of auctions
Type of Auctions

  • English Auction

    • open cry auction

  • Sealed-bid Auction

    • single round or multiple rounds

  • Dutch Auction

What is agent
What is Agent?

  • Dictionary:

    • Latin ‘agans” -> to act

    • the producer of an effect, an active substance, a person or thing that performs an action, a representative, etc.

  • Common characteristics:

    • perform some task on our behalf (action)

    • has responsibility

    • access to some of our resources

    • proactive/reactive

Agent based auction systems

Agent-based Auction Systems

Uml to model agent protocol in an auction system
UML to Model Agent Protocol in an Auction System

  • UML has been proved to facilitate many software developers to express and exchange the idea about the design and specification of the software systems.

  • The wide acceptance of UML as a modeling tools.

  • The existing elements are sufficient in modelling agent-based auction systems.

Uml activity diagram notations 1
UML Activity Diagram Notations (1)

  • Initial and final states

  • Action state

  • Transition

Uml activity diagram notations 2
UML Activity Diagram Notations (2)

  • Decision

  • Fork and Join

Multiple r ound s ealed b id auction
Multiple Round Sealed Bid Auction

Dutch auction
Dutch Auction


  • UML has the ability on modelling agent interactions.

  • The interactions modelled:

    • the flow of messages during the auction process.

    • the expected actions in different states of the auctions.

  • Future works:

    • defining the message format

    • mapping the message into an existing Agent Communication Languages, such as FIPA ACL.