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Reading is… • The product of decoding (the ability to read words on a page) and language comprehension (understanding those words). • according to Gough’s “Simple Theory of Reading Comprehension.” • It’s not quite this simple, but this is a good starting point for examining comprehension theory. This does not take into account the many differences between oral and written language. LanguageComprehension Decoding X
Components of Decoding & Comprehension • based on Dr. Mel Levine’s work Active Working Memory phonological awareness backgroundknowledge Accurate Decoding Accurate Comprehension sound-letter association syntax discourse visualrecognition Semantic Knowledge interest, comfort early literacyexperiences
Components of Decoding & Comprehension • A more nuanced view takes into account characteristics of reader, text and task Context:SocialCulturalLanguage Reader from the RAND study,2002 Text Task
The Reader word recognition & decoding skills metacognition strategyknowledge/use understanding sentences andtext structures Backgroundknowledge vocabulary(word knowledge) short-term & working memory
The Text clarity &cohesion narrativeor expository use of titles& subtitles number of unusual words supporting graphs& illustrations sentencecomplexity
The Task How is the taskstructured? What is the reader’spurpose? How muchscaffolding is there? What are theconsequences? Is there atime limit?
The Context • Socially supported? • Shared experience? • Enjoyable? • Help available?
The Reading Comprehension Process • Comprehension involves dynamic interaction between reader, text and task. • The process involves: • Schema Activation • Propositional Processing • Structural Building Framework • The process takes place in the field of active working memory.
The Process of Reading Comprehension: in all its complexity • With academic reading comprehension, there is more than one path a reader may need to travel. More dense text calls for more effort in language processing, which takes more time and uses more resources in active working memory. However, an experientially familiar text tends to be processed more efficiently, and invokes fewer processing subsystems. All processes are mediated by the structural building framework (SBF). • Finally, it is likely that listening comprehension is somewhat similar, but that active working memory resources are allocated differently, due to the increased availability of contextual (social and paralinguistic) cues available to listeners in oral communication, as compared to written text.
The Reading Comprehension Process • Schema Activation • (prior knowledge the reader brings to the text) Structural Building Framework (manipulation of language & ideas) • Propositional Processing • (reading & making sense of words & sentences, • perceiving connections to understand concepts)
The Reading Comprehension Process • Schema Activation categories, mental maps, background knowledge comprehension self-monitoring modulating energy & focus Shifting between schema & propositions Structural Building Framework (manipulation of language & ideas) • Propositional Processing reading sentences, vocabulary, paraphrasing
The Reading Comprehension Process Schematic Knowledge • Schematic Slot Theory: Mutual Accommodation of Propositions & Schema Slot Slot ??? A limited schema is unable to accommodate one of the propositions. The reader experiences this lack of accommodation as comprehension failure. Proposition Proposition Proposition
The Reading Comprehension Process • Schema Activation conceptual activity -- reflective • skimming • chunking • outlining • predicting Minimalist processing Fast, shallow, labor-saving Structural Building Framework Critical Reasoning Summarizing Connectionist processing Slow, deep, labor-intensive • Propositional Processing • highlighting • paraphrasing linguistic activity -- expressive
Reading Comprehension: A Teaching-Learning Developmental Cycle Schema activation “given” Background-expanding activity Idea-accommodating activity Structural Building Frameworks “linking” Propositional processing “new”
Reading Comprehension: A Teaching-Learning Developmental Cycle Recoding & reflecting Designing comprehension tools for others Slot-expanding activity Idea-accommodating activity Consolidating & summarizing Schema activation Structural Building Frameworks Observation & discussion Previewing Making notes Wondering & questioning Highlighting main ideas or elements of story grammar Propositional processing Reading paragraphs