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EMBEDDED CONTROL SYSTEMS. A. ASTAPKOVITCH. Lecture 0 INTRODUCTION. State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, 201 1. GOALS OF THE COURSE. Understanding of the theory and the engineering concepts and principles behind embedded systems

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embedded control systems

EMBEDDED CONTROL SYSTEMS

A.ASTAPKOVITCH

Lecture 0

INTRODUCTION

State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, 2011

slide2

GOALS OF THE COURSE

  • Understanding of the theory and the engineering
  • concepts and principles behind embedded systems
  • (multichannel real time control systems);
  • Knowledge of the present level :
    • of embedded control solutions for space and car industry;
    • modern hardware ( microproccessors, microcontrollers,
    • signal processors; single board computers, modular
    • systems, system on chip, distributed control systems);
    • software developing technology chain (OS Neutrino,
    • OSEK/VDX, modern IDE);
slide3

COURSE INCLUDES TOPICS

  • SYSTEM ENGINEERING
  • HARWARE COMPONENT
  • MODERN SOFTWARE DEVELOPING
  • TECHNOLOGY
  • RTOS NEUTRINO, OSEK/VDX
slide4

PART 1. SYSTEM ENGINEERING

  • LECTURE 1. EMBEDDED CONTROL - PAST AND PRESENT
  • § 1.History of the embedded control systems
  • § 2. Modern car control system
  • § 3. Mars rover SPIRIT-OPPORTUNITY mission
  • § 4. Control system concept
  • § 5. Mechanical design
  • LECTURE 2. MARS ROVER CONTROL SYSTEM
  • § 1. Control system functions
  • § 2. Digit video system
  • § 3. Hardware component of the control system
  • § 4. Software component of the control system
  • § 5. Principles of the autonomous operation
  • LECTURE 3. SPACE CONTROL ENGINEERING STANDARTS
  • § 1. International cooperation in space projects
  • § 2. ECSS structure
  • § 3. Review of the engineering branch ECSS-E
  • § 4. Standard control system model
  • § 5. Basic definitions
slide5

COURSE REVIEW

System Engineering

  • History of the control systems for space research

Moon automatic research station LUNA-16

  • 101 g of moon
  • sample were
  • received on
  • Earth ;

SPUTNIK-3

first satellite with digit

control system

12/09/1970 - 21/09/1970

slide6

COURSE REVIEW

System Engineering

  • Control system of the modern car is distributed
  • Modern car control system is the more than just one net
slide7

COURSE REVIEW

System Engineering

  • JPL mars rover Spirit-Opportunity control system
  • Autonomous operation is only possible solution
  • Mars rover Opportunity still working on MARS
  • Rover Spirit was discovered that water existed on Mars in past
slide8

Interactionwithenvironment)

Control objectives

Control commands

Controller

Controlled

Plant

Actuators

Control feedback

Sensors

Control System

Controlled system

Control performance

COURSE REVIEW

System Engineering

  • Review of European Standards for Space- ECSS

Standard ECSS-E-60Amodel of control system

slide9

PART 2. CONTROL SYSTEM HARDWARE BASICS-I

LECTURE 4. COMPUTING SYSTEM STRUCTURE

§ 1. Architecture basic principles

§ 2. Microprocessor, signal processor, microcontroller

§ 3. Moor and Amdahl laws

§ 4. Control system structure

§ 5. Basic definitions

LECTURE 5. MODULE CONTROL SYSTEM

§ 1. COTS and OEM solutions

§ 2. Standard PC-104

§ 3. CompactPCI

§ 4. Standard VMEbus

§ 5. System on module

LECTURE 6. DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM

§ 1. Controller and ECU

§ 2. Control system topology basic definitions

§ 3. Microcontroller architecture

§ 4. Interrupt function basics

§ 5. Timer modules

slide10

PART 2. CONTROL SYSTEM HARDWARE BASICS-II

LECTURE 7. MICROCONTROLLERS PIC18F (Microchip)

§ 1. Review of nanoWatt Technology family

§ 2. Peripherals

§ 3. Interrupt system realization

§ 4. Fault tolerant features

§ 5. Application example

LECTURE 8. DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM

§ 1. Car control system structure

§ 2. Platform approach

§ 3. Control net topology

§ 4. CAN bus

§ 5. LINbus and MOST

slide11

COURSE REVIEW

HARDWARE COMPONENT

  • Moor law
  • Number of transistor is doubled every
  • 18 month (after 96 )
  • 24 month ( 70- 95 )
  • Amdahl law
  • The speedup S of a program using N multiple processors in parallel computing is limited by the sequential fraction of the program f. 

S ≤ 1/ (f+(1-f)/N) < 1/f

slide12

COURSE REVIEW

HARDWARE BASIC

  • Microprocessor - Signal processor - Microcontroller
  • Architecture OMAP-L138(Texas Instruments)
slide13

COURSE REVIEW

VMEbusMODULAR SYSTEM

  • Form factor PC-10490*96 mm
  • ISA bus 8 Mbit
  • One board computer Tiger (VersaLogic) in form factor PC-104+
  • PCI bus 133 Mbit
  • Atom Z5xx (1.11 ГГц.)
slide14

COURSE REVIEW

VMEbusMODULAR SYSTEM

slide15

COURSE REVIEW

Microcontroller PIC18 - control system on chip

slide16

COURSE REVIEW

CAR CONTROL NETS

  • DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS ON THE BASE OF THE DIFFERENT NETS
  • CAN net AND LIN net IS THE MOST POPULAR FOR CLASSES A,B,C
  • CLEAR THAT CLASS D WILL BE FIBER NET
slide17

PART 3. SOFTWARE DEVELOPING TECHNOLOGY

LECTURE 9. DEVELOPING CYCLES

§ 1. Introduction

§ 2. Basic definitions

§ 3. V-model

§ 4. System integration

§ 5. Complete cycle design

LECTURE 10. REVIEW OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY

§ 1. Developing method hierarchy

§ 2. Linear coding

§ 3. Component coding

§ 4. RTOS and mRTOS

§ 5. Application generator

LECTURE 11. RTOS BASICS

§ 1. POSIX ,ARINC-653 standards

§ 2. OSEK/VDX

§ 3. POSIX threads

§ 4. Time measurement in digital control systems

§ 5. Real time control basic definitions

slide18

COURSE REVIEW

V-MODEL

  • A framework to describe the software development life cycle activities
slide19

DOWN

UP

APPLICATION GENERATOR

      • RTOS and mRTOS technology
  • BASIC ELEMENTS:
    • RTOS model (threads, process, message ….)
    • IDE created code structure

UP DOWN

      • COMPONENT CODING TECHYNOLOGY
  • BASIC ELEMENTS :
    • functions, subroutine, macros
    • object library, macros library
      • LINEAR CODING TECHNOLOGY
  • BASIC ELEMENTS :
    • Assembler , C, JAVA

COURSE REVIEW

NESTED SW DEVELOPING TECHNOLOGY

slide20

TASK LOOP CYCLE

Tc

SYSTEM PROCESS

Tsys = Tisr+Tdisp

KERNEL

PROCESS

TIME SLOT Tk

1st PROCESS

2nd PROCESS

3rd PROCESS

CYCLE K

CYCLE K+1

CYCLE K+2

RR dispatcher processogramma

COURSE REVIEW

MULTI LEVEL DESCRIPTION

  • RTOS and mRTOS are the core of the modern developing technology
  • BASIC ELEMENTS: scheduling, interrupt servicing, inter process communications
  • It is necessary to use multilevel algorithm description
slide21

COURSE REVIEW

RTOS STANDARDS

  • POSIX
    • 1003.1a ( OS Definition )
    • 1003.1b ( Realtime Extensions )
    • 1003.1c (Threads)
  • ARINC-653 (Avionics Application Software Standard Interface)
  • OSEK/VDX
    • OSEK OS operatingsystem -
    • OSEK Time time triggered operating system
    • OSEK COM communicationservices
    • OSEK FTCOM faulttolerantcommunication
    • OSEK NM networkmanagement
    • OSEK OIL ImplementationLanguage
    • OSEK ORTI kernel awareness for debuggers.
slide22

PART 4. MODERN SOFTWARE DEVELOPING PLATFORMS

LECTURE 12. PLATFORM QNX6

§ 1. Basic principles

§ 2. RTOS Neutrino

§ 3. Neutrino threads

§ 4. Messages, communications, interrupts

§ 5. IDE QNX Momentics

LECTURE 13. PLATFORM MPLAB

(Microchip)

§ 1. Basic principles

§ 2. Project manager

§ 3. Linker

§ 4. Assembler, macroassembler, C

§ 5. mRTOS technology

LECTURE 14. PLATFORM OSEK/VDX

§ 1. Basic principles and OSEK standard structure

§ 2. OSEK RTOS

§ 3. OSEK COM

§ 4. OSEK NM

§ 5. OSEK OIL

LECTURE 15. TT-PARADIGM

§ 1. mRTOS OSEKtime

§ 2. Tasks and tt- sheduler

§ 3. Interrupt servicing

§ 4. Time synchronization

§ 5. OSEK FTCom

slide23

COURSE REVIEW

PLATFORM QNX6

  • QNX6 platform is based on RTOS Neutrino;
  • Core of the RTOS Neutrino : microkernel structure, thread,
  • message communications;
slide24

Connection

ConnectAttach()

Channel

ChannelCreate()

PROCESS SERVER_1

PROCESS СLIENT

THREAD _ 1

THREAD_ 1

THREAD_ 2

THREAD_ 2

THREAD_ M

THREAD_ K

COURSE REVIEW

NEUTRINO INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATIONS

  • Uniform procedure and different types
slide25

COURSE REVIEW

OSEK/VDX

Motivation

• High, recurring expenses in the development and variant management of

non-application related aspects of control unit software

• Incompatibility of control units made by different manufacturers due to different

interfaces and protocols

Goal

Support of the portability and reusability of the application software by:

• Specification of interfaces which are abstract and as application-independent as possible,

in the following areas: real-time operating system, communication and network

management

• Specification of a user interface independent of hardware and network

• Efficient design of architecture: The functionality shall be configurable and scalable,

to enable optimal adjustment of the architecture to the application in question

• Verification of functionality and implementation of prototypes in selected pilot projects

slide26

COURSE REVIEW

OSEK/VDX mRTOS

  • Event Triggered and Time Triggered mRTOS
  • TT sheduling changes a classical RTOS world
slide27

COURSE REVIEW

OSEK/VDX

  • OSEK/VDX - Event Triggered mRTOS)
  • The specification of the OSEK/VDX OS provides a pool of services and processing mechanisms.
  • The operating system serves as a basis for the controlled real-time execution of concurrent application and provides their environment on a processor.
  • The architecture of the OSEK/VDX OS distinguishes three processing levels: interrupt level, a logical level for operating systems activities and task level.
  • The interrupt level is assigned higher priorities than the task level. In addition to the management of the processing levels, operating system services are provided for functionality like task management, event management, resource management, counter, alarm and error treatment.
  • OSEK/VDX OSEKtime – Time Triggered mRTOS
  • The OSEKtime operating system provides the necessary services to support distributed fault-tolerant highly dependable real-time applications (e.g., start-up of the system, message handling, state message interface, interrupt processing, synchronization and error handling).
slide28

COURSE REVIEW

OSEK/VDX COMMUNICATION SUBSYSTEMS

  • OSEK/VDX communication (COM)
  • The communication specification provides interfaces for the transfer
  • of data within vehicle networks systems. This communication takes
  • place between and within network stations (ECU’s).
  • OSEK/VDX Fault-Tolerant Communication FTCom
  • FTCom is divided into the layers: Application, Message Filtering, Fault
  • Tolerant, and Interaction
  • The Application layer provides the Application Programming Interface
  • The Message Filtering layer provides mechanisms for message filtering
  • The Fault Tolerant layer provides services required to support the fault-
  • tolerant functionality, that includes mechanisms for message instance
  • management and support of message status information