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C hange of the industrial structure and human activity spaces in Chinese mining citie s. LIU Yungang ( S un Yat-Sen University , Guangzhou,China ) (E-mail: liuyung@mail.sysu.edu.cn ) 刘云刚,中山大学. My research approach. 理论 (THEORY ) 系统地理学 (Systematic Geog- raphy). 逻辑 (LOGIC )

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c hange of the industrial structure and human activity spaces in chinese mining citie s

Change of the industrial structure and human activity spaces in Chinese mining cities

LIU Yungang

(Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou,China)

(E-mail: liuyung@mail.sysu.edu.cn)

刘云刚,中山大学

my research approach
My research approach

理论 (THEORY)

系统地理学

(Systematic Geog-

raphy)

逻辑 (LOGIC)

地图学 (Cartography)

语言 (Words)

数学 (Mathematics)

事实 (FACTS)

区域地理学

(Regional Geog-

raphy)

Source:Bunge.W(1966)

Begin from FACTS or THEORY?

Let’s discover the FACTS first!

my research approach1
My research approach
  • Focus local places
  • discover →explanation/analysis →construct the framework →explanation/comparison → theory
slide4
Emerged with resource development

Located on main resource areasand mining industry areas

become the main problem areas in China after Reformation

The characteristics of Chinese mining city

slide5

Distribution of Chinese mining cities

  • According to our definition, 58 organizational cities are identified as mining cities.
  • The mining cities can be divided in terms of type of mines into colliery cities, oil-field cities, metal-mining cities, and nonmetal-mining cities.
  • They mainly locate in the Northeast China and the Central China.
slide6

Population of Chinese mining cities

1/5 population of total cities are in the mining cities

slide7

Two great developed Stage

Be on the decline?

The second stage

The first stage

slide8

%

Average of all Chinese cities

RMB

GDP/P and its rate of increase(1984-2005)

Low rates, but no minus

slide9

9

Mao-Ming

Dong-Ying

8

Zao-Zhuang

Average of all Chinese cities

Pu-Yang

7

Shuo-zhou

Rate of increase(1984-2005)(%)

Lai-Wu

6

5

4

Xu-Zhou

3

Tang-Shan

2

Da-Tong

An-Shan

1

Fu-Shun

0

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Population,2005(10thousand)

Population and its rate of increase

Low rates, but no minus

slide10

The question & The point

  • Compares with western countries, Chinese mining cities developed with larger population scale, the increasing industry, increasing population, Low rates, but no minus, no decline.
  • “Sustainable development”?
slide11

A case study of Liaoyuan City

  • In North-East China, JILIN
  • Upland
  • Average-temperature 5.2℃
  • Average-precipitation 666.5mm
  • Coal developed since 1911s.
  • Population:450,000

Song-Liao Plain

Chang-Bai Mountains

遼源市

Liaoyuan City

slide12

Dropped off, the coal output

Private

Wartime Control

Rationalization with Reformation

Developed in Planned Economy

slide17

Many People move out of Liaoyuan?

population move into the city

population move out of the city

Family registration data, by Liaoyuan yearbook

a study where are the people living
The main industries have declined ,but population have not scaled down

Although the unemployment is rising, the population have not moved out.

A study: where are the people living?
  • Why does not the unemployment move out?

Where are they living?

How are they making their living in the city?

slide19

A background: divided urban space

Mining area (old area )

(Xi’an district)

subsidence area

Mining bureau

Direction of

expansion

Municipal

government

Newly developing area

(Longshan distric)

The development zone

slide20

lowest

highest

(元/m2)

The distribution of the basic price of land using

Mining bureau

The basic price of land using

Municipal

government

Yuan/m2

a hypothesis
On the background of the differentiation of residence, the population increase continue only in Longshan district. In Xi’an district, the population didn’t decrease, but also didn’t increase.A hypothesis

Hypothesis:

The impoverished and unemployment people are moving into the mining area. And most of them live there.

questionnaire survey
Theme: The human activity spaces in Liaoyuan city

Subject: If the most of unemployment are moving into the mining area and live there?

Time: 2005/02/25-2005/03/02

Respondents: extracted 50 households separately from 2 housing plots along the Kuandian street (the main street in Liaoyuan city).

Questionnaire survey
slide26

Compare the income

The source of income

Income

Xi’an

Longshan

The poor mainly live in Xi’an district. Much of them get income beyond salary, or no earned income.

slide27

Compare the Danwei and the occupation

Danwei the householder belonged to

the occupation of the householder

slide28

Graduated from

The age and education

Education structure of the householder

age

age

Age structure of the householder

Graduated from

slide29

the second-generation living together (N=29×2)

the occupation of the second-generation

Age structure of the householder

slide31

The difference of life style

The activities on holidays

The frequency of eating out

slide32

the polarization of human activity spaces

  • Xi’an-district (Mining area)becomes the main area where the poor and the unemployment live.
  • The living conditions between mining area and newly developed area are quite different. The polarization human activity spaces forms.
  • Why does the polarization appear?

House and Job, The Danwei regulation

slide34

Most of the inhabitants no idea to move out of the city

Expected place to movement

The years have Lived in the city

slide35
No education Qualification

Worked in the hospital affiliated with Mining bureau

Worked in the Mining bureau from 1961.

Monthly salary ,35 yuan (until 1985)

Retired in 2000. Retirement pension, 440 yuan every month.

The retirement pension was received from Mining bureau every month

Borrowed a house for marriage in 1961.

Got a house (30 m2) for the allocation of Danwei in1962

The house was destroyed in1982.

Rent a house (paid 10 yuan monthly)

In 2000,house relocation. Bought a new house .

Paid 20,000 yuan, got the property certification.

For example: the experience of Z(65 years old, male)

conclusion
The factors limited the migration of the habitants:

work,house→ Danwei

The polarization of human activity spaces:

newly developed area and mining area

The local area’s poverty issues and

environmental issues arelocalized

to a small area gradually.

Conclusion

New area

Old area

Problem area

slide37

Project: Urban Governance in problems areas

Because of the Danwei regulation, most of unemployment menstill strand in the city instead of moving towards to the other cities. Moreover, the difference in the reformation of Danwei regulations also accelerates the polarization of human activity spaces. As a result ,the scale of the poverty and environment issues reduce. New topics are introduced. Urban Governance, Politics……

End