RELATIVE CLAUSES. A clause is a part of a sentence . A relative clause tells us which person or thing the speaker means . There are two types : Defining and Non- defining. DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES.
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RELATIVE CLAUSES • A clauseis a part of a sentence. • A relativeclausetellsuswhichpersonorthingthe speaker means. • Thereare twotypes: Defining and Non-defining
DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES • Theyprovideessentialinformationwhichidentifiestheperson, place, time orthingwe are referringto.
Complete thesentences. Use WHO or WHICH. Anarchitectissomeone ………… designsbuildings. Thewoman ………. livesnextdooris a doctor. Thebook ……… I boughtyesterdayisreallyinteresting. Whereisthecheese …………. was in thefridge? Sheworksfor a company ……….. makeswashing machines. I know a lot of people ………. don’t do theirhomework. A tenantissomeone …….. paysrenttolive in a house. Thehorse ………. won theracewasnumber 9. A misteryissomething ………. cannot be explained. Haveyoufoundthekeys ……… youlost? THERE ARE ONLY TWO SENTENCES IN WHICH THE PRONOUN COULD BE OMITTED. WHICH ONES ARE THEY? CAN YOU EXPLAIN WHY?
OMITTING RELATIVE PRONOUNS • Whentherelativepronounisfollowedby a verb, itisthesubject of a relativeclause and itcannot be omitted. • Example: Thewomanwholivesnextdooris a doctor. • WHO = THE WOMAN. • THE WOMAN = THE SUBJECT Itcannot be omitted • ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- • Whentherelativepronounisfollowedby a pronounor a noun, it’stheobject of a relativeclause and itisfrequentlyomitted. • Example: Thewomanwho I wantedtoseewasawayonholiday. • WHO = THE WOMAN • THE WOMAN = DIRECT OBJECT It can be omitted. (Ø)
EXAMPLES: PEOPLE: WHO – THAT - Ø A) Theboywholivesnextdoorto me isreallyhandsome. In this case therelativepronounrefersto ‘theboy’. Ifweanalysetherelativeclause, ‘who’ isthesubject. Itcan’tbeomitted. B) TheboywhoI’mgoingoutwithlivesnextdoorto me. In thisexample, therelativepronounrefersagainto ‘theboy’ butit’snotthesubject of therelativeclause. So itcan beomitted. Youcouldsay: TheboyØ I’mgoingoutwithlivesnextdoorto me.
EXAMPLES: THINGS, OBJECTS, ANIMALS: WHICH-THAT-Ø A) Theflowerswhich are onthetableare mine. In this case, therelativepronounrefersto ‘theflowers’. Ifweanalysetherelativeclause, ‘which’ isthesubject. Itcan’tbeomitted. B) Theflowerswhich I put in thevaseare beautiful. In thisexample, therelativepronounrefersagainto ‘theflowers’ butit’snotthesubject of therelativeclause. So itcan beomitted. Youcouldsay: Theflowers I put in thevase are beautiful.
PREPOSITIONS WITH RELATIVE PRONOUNS A) Do youknowthewoman? Tom istalkingtoher. Do youknowthewoman (who/that) Tom istalkingto? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- B) These are thekeys! Youwerelookingforthem. These are thekeys (which / that ) youwerelookingfor. THERE ARE SEVERAL POSSIBILITES, DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF LANGUAGE YOU NEED TO USE. (Formal, informal, spoken, written…)
PREPOSITIONS WITH RELATIVE PRONOUNS ThewomanwithwhomI wenttothe cinema wasmymum. Thewomanwho I wenttothe cinema withwasmymum. Thewomanthat I wenttothe cinema withwasmymum. Thewoman I wenttothe cinema withwasmymum. FORMAL INFORMAL ‘WHOM’ ispossibleinstead of ‘WHO’ whenitistheobject of theverb in therelativeclauseorwhenusedwith a preposition. Butit’snotverycommon in spoken English.
LET’S PLAY!Give me a definitionforthefollowingwords: • A PENSIONER • A FRIDGE • A FAST FOOD RESTAURANT • A PERMANENT MARKER • A SKYSCRAPER • A CAFÉ • A COWARD • A LAPTOP • A BLIND DATE • LOVE • A pensioneris a person / someonewho… • A fridgeisanobject / somethingwhich… • A fastfood restaurant is a place where…
RIDDLES!: Thisissomethingwhichbelongstoyou. However, others use itmuch more thanyou do. Whatisit? There are twodonkeysthatgotogether and I staybehindtheseconddonkey. There’s a wholenationwhichstaysbehind me. Whichwordisit?(TIP: It’sa wordwhichyou can use to describe a crime) OnmywaytoSt. Ives I saw a manwhohad 7 wives, whohad 7 sacks. Eachsackhad 7 cats, whichhad 7 kittens. Kittens, cats, sacks, wives. How many were going to St. Ives?
RIDDLES!: SOLUTIONS: YOUR OWN NAME ASS-ASS-I-NATION ONLY ONE: ME!!!!!!
GAME • WORK IN PAIRS. • THINK OF AN OBJECT OR A PERSON AND WRITE A DEFINITION. • YOUR CLASSMATES WILL TRY TO GUESS THE WORD. • EXAMPLES GIVEN: • It’ssomethingwhichyou can use tocleanyourteeth. • Thisis a personwho looks afteryousinceyou are born. • * * * • THIS IS AN OBJECT WHICH YOU CAN SEE… • IT’S SOMETHING THAT YOU CAN USE TO… • THIS IS A TOOL THAT WE USE TO… • IT’S AN OBJECT THAT IS VERY …
Jointhesentencesusing a relativepronoun. Peter has got a coincollection. Itcontainsmanyrarecoins. Mary spentthemoney. Itbelongedtohersister. The pen isonthedesk. Itisblue. Thisisthe new president. Weallvotedforhim. I met a Finnishtourist. He lives in Helsinki. I know a man. He isgoingtomarrymyfriend. John bought a new CD player. Itwasmade in China. Theyvisitedthevillage. Itisonthehill. Themanlefttown. Wewroteanangrylettertothisman. Thisistheboy. Youwereasking me aboutthisboy.
NON DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES • Theygiveusadditionalinformationabouttheperson, place, time orthingwe are talkingabout. • They are usuallyused in writtenlanguage. • Theinformationisnotnecessarytounderstandthemeaning of thesentence. • There are alwayscommasbefore and aftertherelativeclause. • Therelativepronouncannot be ommited. • ‘THAT’ cannot be used.
NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES • Extra information. • Commas. • ‘That’ cannot be used.
Joineachpair of sentenceswith a relativeclause. (NON-DEFINING) Peter and Mary met in Paris. Theywentto France ontheirhoneymoon. Tommy isgettingmarried. Hissisteris in myclass. We’llcelebrateouranniversary in thepark. Weusedtogotherewhenwestarteddating. Thegigwas a success. Ittook place in a small pub. I’ll introduce youtomyfriend. I mether in England. Mybrotherspeaksverygood English. HisgirlfriendisIrish. Myparentsgotmarried in Almodóvar castle. Thiscastleis in Córdoba. Penélope Cruz is a reallygoodactress. SheisSpanish.
Joineachpair of sentenceswith a relativeclause. Freddie Mercury died in 1992. He was a famoussinger. (WHO) Thisis Tony. You’ll be drivingwithhimnextweek. (WHOM) Thisisthehouse. Jean lived in thathousewhenshewasyoung. (Ø) Wesawthecottage. Wordswothlivedthere. (WHERE) John ismyfriend. His car wasstolenfromthe car park. (WHOSE) He wentto a concert. He didn’tliketheconcert at all. (THAT) I don’tknowtheman. He helped me thismorning. (WHO) Shakespeare isone of thebest-knownwriters in theworld. He isburied in Stratford-upon-Avon. (WHO)
Joineachpair of sentenceswith a relativeclause. • Freddie Mercury died in 1992. He was a famoussinger. (WHO) • Freddie Mercury, whowas a famoussinger, died in 1992. • Thisis Tony. You’ll be drivingwithhimnextweek. (WHOM) • Thisis Tony, withwhomyou’ll be drivingnextweek. • Thisisthehouse. Jean lived in thathousewhenshewasyoung. (Ø) • Thisisthehouse Jean lived in whenshewasyoung. • Wesawthecottage. Wordswothlivedthere. (WHERE) • WesawthecottagewhereWordsworthlived. • John ismyfriend. His car wasstolenfromthe car park. (WHOSE) • John, whose car wasstolenfromthe car park, ismyfriend. • He wentto a concert. He didn’tliketheconcert at all. (THAT) • He wentto a concertthat he didn’tlike at all. • I don’tknowtheman. He helped me thismorning. (WHO) • I don’tknowthemanwhohelped me thismorning. • Shakespeare isone of thebest-knownwriters in theworld. He isburied in Stratford-upon-Avon. (WHO) • Shakespeare, whoisburied in Stratford-upon-Avon, isone of thebest-knownwriters in theworld.
CORRECT THE MISTAKES Toledo isthecitythat I wasborn. What’stheaddress of thewomanwhodog bit ours? ThisistheschoolwhereI’mstudyingthere. You can haveanythingwhatyouwant. I’dliketomeet Jane, thatyouwill be workingwith. Hereitisthe hotel whichitwasrecommendedtous. Herhouseis in London which has threerooms. Thisisthebookthatitsauthoris a journalist. Look at this car that I boughtityesterday. Thewomantowhoyouweretalkingismymother.
CORRECT THE MISTAKES Toledo isthecitywhereI wasborn. What’stheaddress of thewomanwhosedog bit ours? ThisistheschoolwhereI’mstudyingthere. You can haveanythingthatyouwant. I’dliketomeet Jane, whomyouwill be workingwith. Hereitisthe hotel whichitwasrecommendedtous. Herhouse, which has threerooms, is in London. Thisisthebookwhoseauthoris a journalist. Look at this car that I boughtityesterday. Thewomantowhomyouweretalkingismymother.