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Biomes and aquatic Ecosystems

Biomes and aquatic Ecosystems

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Biomes and aquatic Ecosystems

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  1. Biomes and aquatic Ecosystems Unit 4: The Biosphere

  2. Tundra • Below polar ice caps • No trees • Frozen soil (permafrost)

  3. Boreal Forest or Taiga • South of Tundra, evergreen forest • No permafrost • Short summers

  4. Temperate Forest • Broad-leaved, deciduous trees • Four seasons • Woodland animals (bears)

  5. Temperate Shrubland or Chaparral • Less rainfall than temperate forests • Dominated by shrubs (California)

  6. Temperate Grassland • Fertile soils – to support grasses • Drought, grazers, and fires prevent it from becoming a forest • Example: prairie

  7. Desert • Evaporation exceeds precipitation • Cactus • Lizards

  8. Tropical Savanna • Grasses and scattered trees • Minimal precipitation • Lions and zebras

  9. Tropical Rain Forest • Warm temperatures, lots of rain • Highest species diversity • Canopy v. understory

  10. Other Terrestrial Areas • Mountains – climate changes as altitude changes • Communities resemble that of the tundra at the top • Polar regions – cold all year, covered in ice

  11. Aquatic Ecosystems - Overview • Freshwater • Transitional (“brackish”) • Marine (salty)

  12. Freshwater Ecosystems • Rivers and streams – water flows in one direction, carries sediment, cause erosion • Plants and animals must be able to withstand water currents • Lakes and ponds – standing water, vary greatly in size • Seasonal patterns (next slide)

  13. Transitional Ecosystems • Brackish water – between salty and fresh • Wetlands – marshes, swamps, and bogs • High levels of diversity but… • Often anoxic, usually pretty salty (adaptations) • Estuaries – where salt water meets fresh!

  14. Marine Ecosystems – Salt Water • Intertidal Zone – where ocean meets land • Wave and tide action • Persistent organisms • Coastal ocean and coral reefs • Very diverse (next slide) • Very subject to human disturbances • Open ocean • Photic zone – where light reaches • Phytoplankton