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Unit FourteenUnder the Sign of Mickey Mouse &Co. 海南大学外国语学院 基础英语教研室
Contents • A. Text one • I. Pre-reading: • (I). Warm-up questions • (II). Background information • II. While-reading: Text Analysis • (I) Structure analysis • (II) Comprehension questions • (III) Language points • (IV) Difficult sentences • III. Post-Reading: • (I) Grammatical items • (II) Translation Exercises • (III) Oral activities • (IV) Writing practice • B. Text two • （I）Questions for text comprehension • （II）Language points
I. Pre-reading: • Information • American popular culture is the attitudes and perspectives shared by the majority of the U.S. citizens, which expresses itself through a number of media, including movies, music, sports and cultural icons.
American Cultural information • Movies e.g. Hollywood, Broadway • Music e.g. hip-hop, Rap, jazz, blues, country, R&B • Sports e.g. NBA • Cultural icons e.g. Mickey Mouse, Bugs Bunny
American Brands: Coca-Cola, IBM, Johnson & Johnson, • Microsoft, Wal-Mart Stores, etc. • American movies’ ticket office in China: American • movies Avatar and Alice in Wonderland ranked the first • and the second in China’s ticket office list of 2010.
American culture has been infiltrating nations all over the world over the past two decades, marginalizing traditional cultures throughout the world and bringing about the kind of global “fun” culture that Disney is famous for. In this text, Todd Gitlin reveals the trend that American culture is becoming dominant and enjoys worldwide popularity, and accounts for this cultural phenomenon.
II. While-reading: Text Analysis The text can be divided into the following three parts: • Part One (Paragraph 1): This is the introduction where the author advances his idea that American culture is dominant over the “global village”.
Part II (Paragraphs 2 — 5): This part presents evidence of the universal popularity that American culture enjoys, and explores what underlies the cultural phenomenon. This part can be further divided into two sub-sections. Paragraphs 2 — 4 as a sub-section give testimony to the idea that American pop culture is recognized worldwide, while Paragraph 5 explains why it is so.
Part III (Paragraph 6): The author concludes his argument with a thought-provoking restatement of his point.
Contrast is a prominent feature of the text. It is realized by parallel structures, where there is semantic disparity. For instance, in Paragraph 1, “in mansions on the hill” is in contrast to “in huts”. In Paragraph 4, Grandfather is dressed in “traditional Tungusian clothing”. Grandson has on his head “a reversed baseball cap”. Contrast is also manifested through lexical opposition, as exemplified in “They are both local and cosmopolitan”, where “local” is opposite to “cosmopolitan”. There are other examples like dispatch－collect, well known－rarely acknowledged, love－hate, antagonism－dependency, monocultures－cultural bilingualism. • Read the text and find other structural and lexical manifestations of contrast.
Questions 1.What unifies the nations into a “global village”? (Paragraph 1) It is the media flow that unifies the nations into a “global village”, as it defies national boundaries. When national boundaries are no longer a barrier of communication and when communication is so easy and fast on the Internet, people all over the world feel as if they were living in the same one village.
2. How do you understand “the symmetry of the exhibition”? (Paragraphs 2) “The symmetry of the exhibition” means the balance, or the approximate balance between two sides: on the one hand is Marie Antoinette, the dedicator of the cellar and Queen of France to Louis XVI, and on the other are American pop stars. The former was royalty in history while the latter are royalty of the modern era, in the metaphorical sense.
3. What underlies French hypocrisy as shown in Paragraph 3? (Paragraphs 3) French hypocrisy as manifested by the two facts related in Paragraph 3 is only superficial. There is something deeper. What lies behind is the paradox: the antagonism and the dependency are inseparable. People everywhere consciously resist the invasion of American culture for the maintenance of their native cultures, but subconsciously enjoy and even rely on American culture.
4. Why does American culture become a kind of lingua franca? (Paragraphs 2—5) • Part of the reason that American culture becomes a kind of lingua franca, i.e. it is universally recognized, is that it meets a psychological need in the growth of the young. Another part of the reason is America’s attempt to popularize their culture in the world for economic, ideological and other purposes. In short, American culture as a kind of lingua franca is the result of America’s striking “from inside the spectator as well as from outside.”
Group discussions • How do you understand the questions the author raised in Paragraph 4 ?
defy: v. offer effective resistance to sth. or sb. e.g. defy public opinion a political move that defies explanation The baby boy defied all the odds and survived. Translation: 他不顾一切困难坚持干下去。 He was going ahead defying all difficulties. ________________________________________________ 这扇门怎么样都打不开。 The door defied all attempts to open it. _________________________________________________
amazing: a. very surprising, esp. in a way that makes you feel pleasure or admiration e.g. an amazing achievement/discovery/success/ performance It’s amazing how quickly people adapt. Derivation: amazingly ad. e.g. Amazingly, no one noticed. The meal was amazingly cheap.
torrent: n. a rushing, violent or abundant stream of anything e.g. The rain was coming down in torrents. a torrent of abuse/criticism/words Derivation: torrential a. e.g. torrential applause a torrential flow of words Translation: 没等散会，暴雨就倾泻而下。 Before the meeting could end, torrential rain began to pour. ___________________________________________________________________
accustomed: a. familiar with sth. and accepting is as normal or usual Collocations: be/become/get accustomed to sth. / doing sth. e.g. My eyes slowly grew accustomed to the dark. She was a person accustomed to having eight hours’ sleep a night. Synonyms: habituated, adapted Antonym: unaccustomed
resort: v. turn to sth. for assistance or as the means to an end Collocation: resort to sth. e.g. They felt obliged to resort to violence. We may have to resort to using untrained staff.
dispatch: v. send off oraway with promptness or speed e.g. The government was preparing to dispatch 6,000 soldiers to search the island. The victory inspired him to dispatch a gleeful telegram to the President. Phrase: with dispatch: quickly and efficiently (dispatch as a noun) e.g. He carries out his duties with dispatch.
indispensable: a. essential; too important to be without e.g. Cars have become an indispensable part of our lives. Collocations: indispensable to sb. / sth. indispensable for sth. / doing sth. e.g. She made herself indispensable to the department. e.g. A good dictionary is indispensable for learning a foreign language. Antonym: dispensable e.g. They looked on music and art lessons as dispensable.
swoosh: v. make a brushing sound e.g. Cars and trucks swooshed past. The basketball swooshed through the net. Translation: 飞机的推进器卷起一阵呼啸的强风。 The propellers of the plane swooshed a gale. _________________________________________________
narrate: v. give a continuous account of sth. e.g. She entertained them by narrating her adventures in Africa. Derivations: narration: n. e.g. The richness of his novel comes from his narration of it. narrative: a. e.g. narrative fiction/ structure narrator: n. e.g. So he listens and waits for the narrator to explain more.
celebrity: n. A celebrity is someone who has become famous for sth., esp. for sth. connected with acting or show business. a global/local celebrity TV celebrities e.g. Translation: 这场讲座由一位体育名人主讲。 The lecture will be given by a sports celebrity. ____________________________________________________ 他是小镇上最出名的人物。 He is the most well-known celebrity in the town. ______________________________________________________
distribute: v. pass out or deliver Collocation: distribute sth. (to/among sb./sth.) e.g. The organization distributed food and blankets to the earthquake victims. The money was distributed among schools in the area. Translation: 本报免费发送。 The newspaper is distributed free. ____________________________________________________ 这些传单将由数百名中学生散发。 The leaflets were to be distributed by hundreds of high school students. _______________________________________________________________________________
Derivation: distribution:n. e.g. the unfair distribution of wealth They studied the geographical distribution of the disease.
exempt: a. not subject to an obligation, liability, etc. Collocation: exempt from sth. e.g. The interest on the money is exempt from tax. Some students are exempt from certain exams. Word formation: -exempt: in compounds, forming adjectives e.g. tax-exempt donations to charity
resentment: n. a feeling of displeasure or indignation at sb. or sth. regarded as the cause of injury or insult e.g. She could not conceal the deep resentment she felt at the way she had been treated. They had to suppress all their natural resentments. Collocations: feel/harbour/bear resentment towards/against sb. Synonyms: hatred, hostility, enmity, malice
notoriety: n. fame for being bad in some way notoriety for/as sth. Collocations: e.g. She achieved notoriety for her affair with the senator. He gained a certain notoriety as a gambler. Derivation: notorious: a. e.g. a notorious criminal The country is notorious for its appalling prison conditions. Synonyms: infamy, discredit
confer: v. give sb. an award, a university degree or a particular honour or right confer sth. on/upon sb. Collocation: e.g. An honorary degree was conferred on him by Oxford University in 1995. The Queen conferred knighthood on the brave soldier. Synonyms: bestow, grant, award, honour
nemesis: n. (pl. nemeses) an unconquerable opponent or rival e.g. Injury, consistently his nemesis, struck him down during the match. The basketball team met its nemesis. Every civilization seems to have its nemesis. Etymology: The word originates from Greek Mythology. Nemesis is a goddess who is usually portrayed as the agent of divine punishment for wrongdoing or presumption.
indigenous: a. characteristic of a particular region or country countries with rich indigenous cultural traditionsThe elephant is indigenous to India. e.g. Translation: 大熊猫产于中国。 Giant pandas are indigenous to China. ____________________________________________________ 袋鼠原产于澳大利亚。 The kangaroo is indigenous to Australia. ____________________________________________________ Synonyms: native, aboriginal, local
reverse: v. bring back to or into; turn in the opposite direction e.g. The government has failed to reverse the economic decline. He took the chair, reversed it, and drew it towards the fire. in reverse: in the opposite order or way; backwards Phrases: e.g. The password is my phone number in reverse. go/put sth. into reverse: start to happen or to make sth. happen in the opposite way e.g. In the 1980s, the economic growth went into reverse.
monocular: a. having only one eye He had only monocular vision. a monocular microscope e.g. monocularity: n. monocularly: ad. Derivations:
cosmopolitan: a. belonging to all the world e.g. I was very much struck by London － the fact that it’s so cosmopolitan. a cosmopolitan city/resort Translation: 音乐是最具有世界性的艺术之一。 Music is one of the most cosmopolitan of the arts. _______________________________________________________ 这个俱乐部具有国际氛围。 The club has a cosmopolitan atmosphere. _______________________________________________
portal: a. (formal or literary) a door, gate or entrance, esp. one of imposing size and appearance e.g. the main portal of the cathedral villas with huge marble portals the portal of knowledge
icon: n. symbol Click on the printer icon with the mouse. a feminist icon Madonna and other pop icons of the 1980s e.g. Synonym: idol, symbol, model
omnipresent: a. present everywhere at the same time e.g. These days the media are omnipresent. the omnipresent threat of natural disasters Word formation: omni-: all omnipotent, omniscient, omnivorous e.g.
be accustomed to: If you are accustomed to sth., you are familiar with it and accept it as normal or usual. e.g. 我不习惯被人打扰。 I am not accustomed to being interrupted. e.g. 学生们很快就习惯了大学的生活。 Students are quickly accustomed to the college life.
account for:to be a particular amount or part of sth. e.g. 但是今天这样的应用只不过占因特网流量的很小一部分。 But today such applications account for only a small fraction of internet traffic. e.g. 但美国国债仍然只占美国家庭总资产额的1%。 But the U.S. Treasuries still account for only 1% of total household assets.
preside over: lead or be in charge of a meeting, ceremony, etc. e.g. 他们问我是否会主持委员会会议。 They asked me if I would preside over the committee meeting. e.g. 该党执政时期，国家经历了历史上最严重的经济衰退。 The party presided over one of the worst economic declines in the country’s history.
amount to: be equal to or the same as sth. e.g. 她的答复等于完全拒绝。 Her answer amounted to a complete refusal. e.g. 他们的行为已构成违约。 Their actions amount to a breach of contract.
1) detect v. → detection n. → detectable a. e.g. 这些检查旨在早期查出疾病。 然而许多问题却未被察觉。 这种噪音人的耳朵几乎是察觉不到的。 The tests are designed to detect the disease early. Many problems, however, escape detection. The noise is barely detectable by the human ear.
2)resent v. → resentment n. → resentful a. 他十分厌恶被别人当孩子对待。 他因为自己悲惨的童年而对父母怀恨在心。 她被运动队淘汰了，对此她愤愤不平。 e.g. He bitterly resents being treated like a child. He harbours a deep resentment against his parents for his miserable childhood. She was resentful at having been left out of the team.
3) defy v. →defiance n. → defianta. e.g. 如果你不服从法律，你就可能坐牢。 尽管国际上明令禁止，核试验又在进行了。 恐怖主义者向政府发出了挑战书。 If you defy the law, you may find yourself in prison. Nuclear testing was resumed in defiance of an international ban. The terrorists sent a defiant message to the government.
4) notoriety n. → notorious a. → notoriously ad. e.g. 他最近卑鄙的所作所为使他臭名昭著。 尽管此人之傲慢远近闻名，我觉得我还是可以和他打交道的。 山地气候难以预料是人所共知的。 He achieved a certain notoriety after his recent mean acts. Despite his notorious arrogance, I felt I could do business with him. Mountain weather is notoriously difficult to predict.
5) antagonism n. → antagonist n. → antagonistic a. e.g. 他对宿敌的仇恨仍然十分强烈。 克林顿是个强劲的对手。 他对媒体，特别是报纸，公开表示敌意。 The antagonism he felt towards his old enemy was still very strong. Clinton was a formidable antagonist. He is openly antagonistic to the media, particularly newspaper.
6)bilinguala. → bilingualism n. e.g. 他们需要谙熟两种语言的秘书。 双语制是很有远见的教育政策。 They need bilingual secretaries. Bilingualism is a farsighted educational policy.
7) amaze v. → amazement n. → amazing a. 有些人为了钱什么都会干得出来，这一直令我惊愕不已。 使我大为惊奇的是，他能把这首诗从头至尾背诵出来。 有这么多人来参加这些会议真是匪夷所思。 e.g. It never ceases to amaze me what some people will do for money. To my amazement, he was able to recite the whole poem from memory. It’s amazing that so many people come to these meetings.