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4. Education as a Professional. FED 300 Foundation of Education. Early Dame School . The school run by women in that community

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4 education as a professional

4. Education as a Professional

FED 300

Foundation of Education

early dame school
Early Dame School
  • The school run by women in that community
    • Families and communities sometimes provide schooling for their children at inexpensive Dame school. The Dame School is run by women in that area to teach rudimentary skills of reading, writing, and calculating. For some children, particularly girls, this was the only formal education they received.
  • During 17th century, the religious education prevailing, like Calvinism. Its staunch theology insisted that children are inherently evil and in need of strict discipline at home and at school.
educational reform
Educational reform
  • Education reform to include secular content
    • By the 19th century, the rigid belief of Orthodox Calvinism began to soften, and Americans adopted more rational and humanistic views. People challenged the traditional educational methods and demand secular (nonreligious) curricula.
    • Philosophers like Henry David Thoreau, Bronson Alcott, and Ralph Waldo Emerson advocated radical reform of education. They said that education is stifling (White only education). Education should be as broad as man…. The immigration must be addressed.
industry affected education
Industry affected education
  • Industrialization is the Northeast shaped the character of the Nation in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Factories grew larger and more complex, roads and shipping improved and transportation costs decreased. People distribute goods to the mass markets. Engineering developed fast in the Northeast coast. Water-powered factories and mills boomed. More iron and coal produced. Entrepreneurs made a lot of manufacturers. Patent law started.
  • Unlike the Northeast people, the South remained rural and dependent on agriculture for its economic well-being. As the cotton gin was invented, the cotton yield 50 times as much as before from 10,000 bales to 50,000 bales yearly in Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.
education for women
Education for Women
  • The Latin school and the English Language Academy denied women’s enrollment.
    • In 1821, the pioneers for women education, like Emma Willard, opened the first women’s school in Troy, New York to teach geography, science, domestic skills, music and other courses to women. Late, there are other women’s schools came into being. Until then, the education for women of not wealthy families was mainly informal, in the home and short-live as compared to the education for men.
education for disabilities
Education for disabilities
  • The education for people with mental or physical disabilities were confined or forgotten in 16th and 18th centuries. Clergymen and physicians were among the leaders providing care and training for people with disabilities. The first special education school in the U.S. was built in Syracuse, New York in 1854.

Anne Sullivan in 1887

Anne Sullivan was teaching Helen Keller in 1888


Helen Adams Keller was born on 27 June 1880 on a plantation called Ivy Green, in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Helen Keller was an American lecturer, author, and activist. Deaf and blind since early childhood, and living in an era where most individuals similarly afflicted were consigned to an asylum, Helen Keller overcame her disabilities with the aide of mentor Anne Sullivan and rose to international renown. Keller used her fame to educate others about the blind and to raise funds for related charities. But her commitment to social change was extensive. She was a personal friend of controversial birth control advocate Margaret Sanger, donated money to the NAACP in 1916, and was a founding member of the ACLU.

educational changes after civil war
Educational changes after civil war
  • Rebuild the nation of America
  • The North and South come into one
  • Slavery abolished (13th, 14th and 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution ended slavery)
  • People’s passion for intellectual freedom and civil liberties grew stronger after Civil War
    • Equal opportunity of education come into agenda
    • Redefined education (both inside and outside of schools)
  • Scientific involvement (Psychology development)
  • Philanthropy influences (successful business peoples’ effort financially support education)
issue impacting educational reform
Issue impacting educational reform
  • Redefine human behavior, using new social customs/rules to govern people’s conduct
  • Industrialization and urbanization
  • New immigration and greater cultural diversity
  • Greater federal involvement in education
  • Development in science and technology
  • Reconceptualization of schools:
    • Preschools, middle schools, comprehensive high schools, adult education
  • Curriculum reform:
    • Standardization, dervisification, innovation, and evaluation
issue impacting educational reform cont d
Issue impacting educational reform, cont’d
  • Development in science and technology
  • Mass media
  • Consolidation and bureaucratization of schools: Educational administrations: state board, district board, city board and public school systems
  • National and international events influence:
    • Great Depression: coop programs to solicit funds, enrollment increased,
    • World wars: military training for army,
    • Civil and equal rights movements --- multicultural Education
    • Space race and cold war --- math and science education
early curricula
Early curricula
  • Hornbooks, primers, and almanacs
  • Geographies, spellers, and dictionaries
  • McGuffey readers