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CHAPTER 9 SECTION 2

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  1. CHAPTER 9SECTION 2 THE UNITED STATES AND LATIN AMERICA

  2. AS THE UNITED STATES ASSERTED ITS • INTERESTS IN EAST ASIA AMERICANS • CALLED FOR A MORE AGGRESSIVE ROLE IN • LATIN AMERICA • AMERICAN INFLUENCE IN LATIN AMERICA • BROUGHT BENEFITS BUT CAUSED ANTI • -AMERICAN HOSTILITY AND INSTABILITY TO • THE REGION

  3. U.S. POLICY IN PUERTO RICO AND CUBA • AMERICAN VICTORY OVER SPAIN • IN THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR • LIBERATED CUBA AND PUERTO • RICO FROM SPANISH RULE • UNDECIDED ABOUT WHAT TO DO • WITH THE TWO SO THE U.S. • ASSUMED CONTROL IN PUERTO • RICO AND CUBA • PUERTO RICO REMAINED UNDER • CONTROL OF THE U.S. MILITARY

  4. 1900 – CONGRESS PASSED • THE FORAKER ACT • – WHICH ESTABLISHED A • CIVIL GOVERNMENT IN • PUERTO RICO • THE FORAKER ACT: • AUTHORIZED THE • PRESIDENT OF THE U.S. TO • APPOINT A GOVERNOR AND • PART OF THE PUERTO • RICAN LEGISLATURE • ALLOWED PUERTO RICANS • TO FILL THE REST OF THE • LEGISLATURE IN A • GENERAL ELECTION

  5. PUERTO RICANS BECOMING CITIZENS OF THE U.S. WAS STILL UNCLEAR – LET TO SERIES OF U.S. SUPREME COURT CASES WHICH THE COURT DETERMINED THE RIGHTS OF PUERTO RICANS • PRESIDENT WILSON SIGNED THE JONES-SHAFROTH ACT WHICH GRANTED PUERTO RICANS MORE CITIZENSHIP RIGHTS AND GAVE THEM GREATER CONTROL OVER THEIR OWN LEGISLATURE • MANY PUERTO RICANS WERE UPSET THAT THEY DID NOT HAVE ALL THE SAME RIGHTS AS AMERICANS

  6. CUBA • THE TREATY OF PARIS GAVE CUBA • INDEPENDENCE BUT THE U.S. DID NOT LEAVE • UNTIL 1902 • BEFORE THE MILITARY LEFT CONGRESS • WANTED CUBA TO ADD THE • PLATT AMENDMENT • TO THEIR CONSTITUTION WHICH RESTRICTED • THE RIGHTS OF CUBANS AND BROUGHT CUBA • WITHING THE U.S. SPHERE

  7. THE PLATT AMENDMENT: • PREVENTED CUBA FROM • SIGNING A TREATY WITH • ANOTHER NATION • WITHOUT AMERICAN • APPROVAL • REQUIRED CUBA TO LEASE • NAVAL STATIONS TO THE U.S. • – GUANTANIMO BAY • GRANTED THE U.S. THE RIGHT • TO INTERVENE TO PRESERVE • ORDER IN CUBA

  8. MANY CUBANS WERE NOT HAPPY WITH THE • PLATT AMENDMENT • – ONLY AGREED TO THE AMENDMENT TO GET • THE U.S. MILITARY OUT OF CUBA • THE U.S. DID NOT WANT CUBA TO BE A BASE • FOR AHOSTILE POWER AGAINST THE U.S. • - SOVIET UNION LATER • CUBA ADDED THE AMENDMENT AS PART OF A • TREATYWITH THE U.S. • – CUBA BECAME PROTECTORATE OF THE U.S.

  9. ROOSEVELT’S “BIG STICK” DIPLOMACY • ROOSEVELT’S POLICY FOR • U.S. ACTION IN LATIN • AMERICA • – DEPENDED ON A STRONG • MILITARY TO ACHIEVE • AMERICA’S GOALS • TERM CAME FROM HIS • ADMIRATION FOR AN OLD • AFRICAN SAYING • “SPEAK SOFTLY AND CARRY • A BIG STICK; YOU WILL GO • FAR”

  10. ROOSEVELT’S VIEW THAT AMERICA NEEDED TO • CARRY A BIG STICK DURING THE AGE OF • IMPERIALISM CAME FROM HIS BELIEF IN BALANCE • OF POWER PRINCIPLES AND HIS VIEW OF THE U.S. • AS A SPECIAL NATION WITH A MORAL • RESPONSIBILTIY TO CIVILIZE WEAKER NATIONS

  11. ROOSEVELT FELT THAT AMERICA’S ELITE • – STATESMEN AND CAPTAINS OF INDUSTRY • – HAD TO ACCEPT THE CHALLENGE OF • INTERNATIONAL LEADERSHIP

  12. PANAMA CANAL • NOT ROOSEVELT’S PLAN BUT HE PLAYED A MAJOR ROLE IN ITS COMPLETION • FRENCH COMPANY TRIED TO CONNECT THE ATLANTIC OCEAN TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN THROUGH THE ISTHMUS OF PANAMA – WAS NOT SUCCESSFUL • THE FRENCH COMPANY CONVINCED THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT TO BUY THE PANAMA ROUTE FOR $40 MILLION

  13. U.S. NEEDED THE APPROVAL FROM THE COLUMBIAN GOVERNMENT – PANAMA WAS UNDER COLUMBIAN CONTROL – COLUMBIA DEMANDED MORE THAN THE U.S. WAS WILLING TO GIVE • ROOSEVELT SENT WARSHIPS TO PANAMATO SUPPORT A PANAMANIAN REBELLION AGAINST COLUMBIA – CONVINCED COLUMBIA NOT TO SUPRESS THE PANAMANIANS WHO THEN DECLARED INDEPENDENCE FROM COLUMBIA

  14. PANAMA THEN GRANTED AMERICA CONTROL • OVER THE “CANAL ZONE” • – BECAUSE THE CANAL WOULD BE A VITAL • TRADE LINK THE U.S. AGREED TO PAY PANAMA • $10 MILLION AND AN ANNUAL RENT OF • $250,000

  15. 35,000 WORKERS HELPED DIG • THE PANAMA CANAL • – VERY DIFFICULT CONDITIONS • – DOCTORS NEEDED TO KNOW • HOW TO COMBAT TROPICAL • DISEASES • – MANY WORKERS DIED FROM • DISEASE OR ACCIDENTS • THE CANAL OPENED IN 1914 • – CUT 8,000 NAUTICAL MILES • FROM THE WEST COAST TO • THE EAST COAST OF THE • UNITED STATES

  16. ROOSEVELT AND THE MONROE DOCTRINE • EARLY 1900S THE • INABILITY OF LATIN • AMERICAN NATIONS TO • PAY THEIR DEBTS TO • FOREIGN INVESTORS • RAISED THE • POSSIBILITY OF • EUROPEAN • INTERVENTION

  17. ROOSEVELT COROLLARY • – UPDATED THE MONROE • DOCTRINE FOR THE AGE OF • ECONOMIC IMPERIALISM • IN CASE OF EUROPEAN • MILITARY INTERVENTION FOR • LATIN AMERICAN • WRONGDOING • – THE U.S. WOULD ASSUME • THE ROLE OF POLICE • POWER, RESTORING ORDER • AND DEPRIVING OTHERS OF • THE EXCUSE TO INTERVENE

  18. ROOSEVELT ARGUED THIS • WOULD KEEP THE WESTERN • HEMISPHERE FROM • EUROPEAN INTERVENTION • – WHICH WAS THE PURPOSE • OF THE MONROE DOCTRINE • SOME LATIN AMERICANS • RESENTED THE ROOSEVELT • COROLLARY • – WERE UPSET BECAUSE HE • FELT THAT LATIN AMERICA • COULD NOT POLICE • THEMSELVES

  19. TAFT AND DOLLAR DIPLOMACY • TAFT FOLLOWED • ROOSEVELT’S BASIC • FOREIGN POLICY OBJECTIVES • – HAD BEEN HAND PICKED BY • ROOSEVELT TO SUCCEED • HIM AS REPUBLICAN • CANDIDATE FROM • PRESIDENT

  20. TAFT WANTED TO MAINTAIN • THE “OPEN DOOR POLICY” • IN EAST ASIA AND WANTED • STABILITY IN LATIN AMERICA • TAFT RELIED LESS ON THE • “BIG STICK” • AND MORE ON • DOLLAR DIPLOMACY • – HE WANTED TO SUBSTITUTE • “DOLLARS FOR BULLETS” • – PURPOSE WAS TO INCREASE • AMERICAN INVESTMENTS IN • BUSINESSES AND BANKS • THROUGHTOUT CENTRAL • AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

  21. WILSON AND MORAL DIPLOMACY • WOODROW WILSON CRITICIZED THE FOREIGN • POLICIES OF ROOSEVELT AND TAFT IN THE 1912 • PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION • AFTER HIS ELECTION HE PROMISED THE U.S. WOULD • “NEVER AGAIN SEEK ONE ADDITIONAL FOOT OF • TERRITORY BY CONQUEST” BUT INSTEAD WORK TO • PROMOTE “HUMAN RIGHTS, NATIONAL INTEGRITY AND • OPPORTUNITY” – WHAT HE CALLED MORAL DIPLOMACY