Special Services • Prepared and Presented by: Theresa Cantu, M. Ed. Director of Special Services
Agenda • Overview of Special Services • RTI / SAP • 504 • Special Education • General Education Homebound / PRS • Response to Intervention • General Education Teacher Responsibilities • Referral to Special Education • Full and Individual Evaluation • Disability Criteria • ARD/IEP • Additional IEP Requirements • Related Services • Instructional Arrangements • Procedural Safeguards
Response to Intervention Ensuring Student Success • Response to Interventions goal is to meet the needs of ALL students at risk for failure, whether or not they qualify for a legislated program. • Response to Intervention is an individual, comprehensive, student-centered problem solving process that can be implemented in the general education classroom. • Educators employ researched-based interventions in their efforts to increase student achievement.
RtI • RTI then uses systematic monitoring of student progress to track student success. • A student’s lack of response to regular education interventions becomes the determinant of need for additional, more intense interventions. • General education must assume significant responsibility for delivery of high-quality instruction, research-based interventions, and prompt identification of individuals at risk while collaborating with special education and related services personnel” (2004 Learning Disabilities Roundtable, 2005).
Response to Intervention • RtI is the practice of providing high quality instruction and interventions matched to student need, monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction or goals and applying student response data to important educational decisions. RtI should be applied to decisions in general, remedial and special education, creating a well-integrated system of instruction/intervention guided by student outcome data
RtI • RtI is the practice of meeting the academic and behavioral needs of ALL students through a variety of services containing the following key elements: • High-quality instruction and scientific researched-based tiered interventions aligned with individual student need • Frequent monitoring of student progress to make results-based academic and/or behavioral decisions • Application of student response data to important educational decisions (such as those regarding placement, intervention, curriculum, and instructional goals and methodologies)
Benefits of RtI • RtI ensures that ALL children have access to high quality instruction and that struggling learners, including those with learning disabilities (LD), are identified, supported, and served early and effectively. Driven and documented by reliable data, the implementation of RtI in Texas schools can result in… • More effective instruction; • Increased student achievement; • More appropriate LD identification; • Increased professional collaboration; and • Overall school improvement.
Core Team Members • Principal • Counselors • Teachers • Teacher Assistants • Diagnostician • Behavior Strategist Team
1.High Quality 8. Fidelity Measures 2. Researched Based RTI Core Principles 3. Classroom Performance 7. Progress Monitoring During Interventions 6. Researched-Based Interventions 4. Universal Screening 5. Continuous Progress Monitoring
5% or Fewer TIER III Intensive Individualized Interventions 5-10 % Targeted Instructional Interventions In Addition to TIER I TIER II Targeted Behavioral Interventions Schoolwide BehavioralExpecta-tions for All Students Core Instruction For All Students TIER I Baseline Data for Academics and Behavior
Correlation with Academics And Behavior • ACADEMIC BEHAVIORAL • Behavioral RtI • Define and analyze the behavior • including whether the behavior is • linked to academic frustration. • Design the classroom and/or • individualized behavioral • intervention. • Implement the interventions. • Evaluate the impact of the • interventions • Modify the intervention, ifnecessary Curriculum Quality curriculum instruction and assessment provide the foundations for RtI.
RtI Correlation to Academics • RtI is designed for early intervention. RtI assumes that the instruction/interventions are matched to student needs and that the monitoring of progress is continuous. RtI is designed as an early intervention to prevent long term academic failure. • RtI is considered a “general education service”, however, can also be implemented in special education settings.
RtI Correlation to Behavior • Behavioral issues can negatively impact learning as learning difficulties can negatively impact behavior. As students’ academic success improves in school, their social and behavioral success tends to improve as well. Nevertheless, an RtI model specifically designed to address behavioral difficulties can; • Improve the pace of that improvement; • Support academic growth; and • Help improve the climate of the school
RtI and the LawNCLB The components of RtI underscored in the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) focus on accountability for results and include: • High Quality Instruction • Researched Based Instruction • Universal Screening • Continuous Progress Monitoring • Early Intervention • Progress Monitoring during Interventions • IDEA
IDEA • The 2004 reauthorization of IDEA includes language allowing states to use an RtI process rather than I. Q. discrepancy model for identifying students with learning disabilities. USDE Regulations permit the use of the RtI process to “ensure that underachievement in a child suspected of having a specific learning disability is not due to lack of appropriate instruction:” (34 C.F.R. 300 &301, 2006). The regulations require that “appropriate” instruction in general education settings has been delivered by highly qualified personnel and that data-based documentation of repeated assessments at reasonable intervals has been collected.
NATIONAL JOINT COMMITTEE ON LEARNING DISABILITIES “Learning disabilities is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorder manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or mathematical abilities. These disorders are intrinsic to the individual, presumed to be due to central nervous system dysfunction, and may occur across the life span. Problems, in self-regulatory behaviors, social perception, and social interaction may exist with learning disabilities but do not by themselves constitute a leaning disability. Although learning disabilities may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions for example; sensory impairment, mental retardation, serious emotional disturbance, or with extrinsic influences such as cultural differences or insufficient or inappropriate instruction, they are not the result of those conditions or influences. (National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities, 1988)
LD Definitions FEDERAL: “Specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not apply to children who have learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, of hearing, of motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantages. (US Department of Educaiton, 1992)
The Presumption of an Inclusive Environment • P. L. 94-142 “Education for ALL Handicapped Children Act”, the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) concept has been a part of the federal law. • “Inclusive (Inclusion) Education” nor the word “Inclusion” appear in the law; however, education of a student with a disability with her/his nondisabled peers is the presumption, unless specifically rebutted. • Special Education is considered a service, not a physical place. • IDEA requires that in development of a student’s IEP there must be specific justification of a decision for a student not to participate with nondisabled peers in academic, extracurricular, and nonacademic activities.
IDEA, P. L. 105-17“Individuals with Disabilities Education Act” • What does the law require? • Students with disabilities be involved and progress in the general curriculum (NCLB, AYP) • The law defines the “general curriculum” as that curriculum which each state has designed for its students in general education. • IDEA’s requirement is that students with disabilities have beneficial access to the general curriculum.
Provision of Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS) • “Supplemental aids and services” for a student and his/her teacher(s) are the tools or help that is needed to enable students with disabilities to benefit from their involvement with the general curriculum. • The law requires the provision of such aids and services to support a student’s participation in nonacademic and extracurricular activities.
Referral to Special Education • Referral Packet • Timeline • Initial Evaluation • Evaluation Procedures • Referrals for Specific Areas • Eligibility
Eligibility • Auditory Impairment • Autism • Deaf-Blind • Emotional Disturbance • Orthopedic Impairment • Intellectual Disability • Multiple disability • Non-Categorical • Other Health Impairment • Speech Language Impairment • Traumatic Brain Injury • Visual Impairment • Learning Disability
Rosa’s Law • October 5, 2010 • Obama signs “Rosa’s Law”; “Mental Retardation” OUT, “Intellectual Disability” IN…
Related Services • Transportation • Adaptive Physical Education • Occupational Therapy • Physical Therapy • Counseling • Orientation and Mobility • Audiological Services • Assistive Technology • Speech (not in the state of Texas)
Learning Disabilities Definition Made Easy • Can see • Can hear • Has average intelligence • Has educational difficulties that do not stem from inadequate educational experiences or cultural differences • Does not acquire and use information efficiently due to an impairment in perception, conceptualization, language, memory, attention, or motor control.
Characteristics of children with Learning Disabilities • Potential and academic achievement discrepancy • Distractibility unlike peers • Excessive movement indicating hyperactivity • Inattentiveness • Impulsiveness • Motor coordination and spatial relation difficulties • Inability to solve problems • Deficits in active involvement and motivation • Over reliance on others for class assignments • Poor language and/or cognitive development • Immature social skills • Disorganized approach to learning • Substantial delays in academic achievement
Programs / Services Delivery Models • Inclusion • Content Mastery • Resource • PPCD (PreSchool Program for Children with Disabilities) • Life Skills (ACU – Academically Challenged Unit) • BMU (Behavior Modification Unit) • SBCISD • VI Resource Room • SFL (Structure for Life Unit)
IEP Development • General Education Teacher vs Special Education Teacher • Instructional Arrangement /Setting Code • Determining State Assessment • STAAR • STAAR Modified • STAAR Alternate • Required Members of the ARD Committee • Procedures for ARD Meetings
Instructional Strategies Programming Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities
Vocabulary List Are continuously curve Between corresponding draws Consists variation graph If isolated known Making only often With one points Relation set table Values variable
If the known relation between the variables consists of a table of corresponding values, the graph consists only of the corresponding set of isolated points. If the variables are known to vary continuously, one often draws a curve to show the variation.” (Basic College Math, Michael M. Michaelson, 1945)
Every child with a disability has a right to attend regular education classes and to have accommodations and/or modifications so they can be successful in those classes. These might include: • Changes in the method of instruction, the curriculum, and the environment.
People with disabilities can participate in all aspects of society and education.
Modifications vs Accommodations • Modifications - Modifications are changes in what a student is expected to learn. • Accommodations - Accommodations are changes in how a student accesses information and demonstrates learning.
Modifying the Curriculum • All students are able to learn together with their typical peers when they are provided the appropriate supports and modifications to the curriculum. • The starting point for curriculum modifications is the regular classroom. • There are many times throughout the school day when a student with a disability can be doing the same thing as other students without a disability.
Consider the following questions when planning class participation and adaptations: • Can the student actively participate in the lesson without modifications? Will the same essential outcome be achieved? • Can the student’s participation be increased by changing the instructional arrangement? • Can the student’s participation be increased by changing the lesson format? • Can the student’s participation and understanding be increased by changing the delivery of instruction or teaching style of the general educator or other instructional agents? • Will the student need adapted curricular goals? • Can changes be made in the classroom environment or lesson location that will facilitate participation? • Will different materials be needed to ensure participation?
Tools in the classroom… • Accommodations and modifications are important tools for a child to successfully accomplish Individual Educational Plan goals and objectives and participate actively with other students in the classroom and school activities.
Accommodations are changes in how a student accesses information and demonstrates learning. • Accommodations do not substantially change the instructional level, content, or performance criteria. • The changes are made in order to provide a student with equal access to learning and equal opportunity to show what he or she knows and can do.
Accommodations can include changes in the following: • Presentation and/or response format and procedures • Instructional strategies • Time / scheduling • Environment • Equipment • Architecture
Modifications are changes in what a student is expected to learn. • The changes are made to provide a student opportunities to participate meaningfully and productively along with other students in classroom and school learning experiences.
Modifications might include changes in the following: • Instructional level • Content • Performance criteria
Instructional Strategies; Teaching Styles • There are many teaching styles. Which one you use will depend upon the size of your class, the content you are teaching, and the learning objectives for the students. • It is important that you feel comfortable when you are teaching so don’t try to adopt a style that makes you feel otherwise.
On the other hand… • Introducing a variety of appropriate teaching styles into you classes, will be more likely to engage students and address their different learning styles. • Each style contains a different amount of student participation and active involvement; every style requires the same two essential things from the instructor- • PREPARATION AND ENTHUSIAM
Teaching Techniques • Lectures • Labs and Demos • Discussion Groups • Cooperative Learning • Helping Students to think • Other Instructional Strategies