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TREATMENT FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS. AP Psychology Ms. Desgrosellier 5.7.2010. PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES. Objective: SWBAT define psychotherapy, and explain what we mean by an eclectic approach to therapy. PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES.

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    1. TREATMENT FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS AP Psychology Ms. Desgrosellier 5.7.2010

    2. PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES • Objective: SWBAT define psychotherapy, and explain what we mean by an eclectic approach to therapy.

    3. PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES • psychotherapy: an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties. • eclectic approach: an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client’s problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy.

    4. Psychoanalysis • Objective: SWBAT define psychoanalysis, and discuss the aims of this form of therapy.

    5. Psychoanalysis • Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud’s therapeutic technique. • Freud believed the patient’s free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences – and the therapist’s interpretations of them – released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.

    6. Methods • Objective: SWBAT describe some of the methods used in psychoanalysis, and list some criticisms of this form of therapy.

    7. DO NOW: • Briefly describe the following psychological disorders IN YOUR OWN WORDS and give one example: • Mood disorders • Schizophrenia

    8. Methods • resistance: in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material. • interpretation: in psychoanalysis, the analyst’s noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight. • transference: in psychoanalysis, the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).

    9. Psychodynamic Therapy • Objective: SWBAT contrast psychodynamic therapy and interpersonal therapy with traditional psychoanalysis.

    10. Psychodynamic Therapy • psychodynamic therapy: has been influenced by traditional psychoanalysis, but is briefer and less expensive. • Focuses on a patient’s current conflicts and defenses by searching for themes common to many past and present important relationships. • interpersonal therapy: a brief 12 to 16 session form, that deals primarily with current symptoms rather than the origins of unconscious conflict.

    11. Humanistic Therapies • Objective: SWBAT identify the basic characteristics of the humanistic therapies, and describe the specific goals and techniques of Carl Rogers’ client-centered therapy.

    12. Humanistic Therapies • Humanistic therapists focus on the present and future, the conscious, taking immediate responsibility for one’s feelings and actions, and promoting growth. • client-centered therapy: a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients’ growth (aka person-centered therapy).

    13. DO NOW • Briefly describe the following psychological disorders and give an example of each: • mood disorders • schizophrenia • PREPARE TO TURN IN THE LAST WEEK’S DO NOWS!

    14. Humanistic Therapies • active listening: empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies.

    15. Behavior Therapies • Objective: SWBAT explain how the basic assumption of behavior therapy differs from those of traditional psychoanalytic and humanistic therapies.

    16. Behavior Therapies • Behavior therapy: therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behavior.

    17. Classical Conditioning Techniques • Objective: SWBAT define counterconditioning, and describe the techniques used in exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.

    18. Classical Conditioning Techniques • counterconditioning: a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning

    19. Classical Conditioning Techniques • exposure therapy: behavior techniques that treat anxieties by exposing people to the things they fear and avoid. • e.g. systematic desensitization and virtual reality exposure therapy. • aversive conditioning: a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (e.g. nausea) with an unwanted behavior (e.g. drinking alcohol).

    20. Operant Conditioning Techniques • Objective: SWBAT state the main premise of therapy based on operant conditioning principles, and describe the views of proponents and critics of behavior modification.

    21. Operant Conditioning Techniques • behavior modification: enforce desired behaviors and withhold reinforcement for, or punish, undesired behaviors.

    22. Operant Conditioning Techniques • token economy: an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the token for various privileges or treats. • Issues: behaviors may reappear when tokens are discontinued, and it might be immoral to control other people’s behavior.

    23. Cognitive Therapy • Objective: SWBAT contrast cognitive therapy and cognitive-behavior therapy, and give some examples of cognitive therapy for depression.

    24. Cognitive Therapy • cognitive therapies: therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions. • e.g. Aaron Beck’s therapy for depression involves therapists trying to change self-defeating thinking by training clients to look at themselves in new, more positive ways.

    25. Cognitive Therapy • stress-inoculation training: people with depression learn to dispute their negative thoughts and to restructure their thinking in stressful situations. • cognitive-behavior therapy: a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior).

    26. Group and Family Therapies • Objective: SWBAT discuss the rationale and benefits of group therapy, including family therapy.

    27. Group and Family Therapies • Except for traditional psychoanalysis, most therapies can be conducted in groups.

    28. Group and Family Therapies • Group therapy does not provide the same degree of therapist involvement with each client. • However, it saves the therapists’ time and clients’ money – and it is often is no less effective than individual therapy. • Clients may benefit from knowing others have similar problems and from getting feedback and reassurance.

    29. Group and Family Therapies • family therapy: therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members. • attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication.

    30. THE BIOMEDICAL THERAPIES • Objective: SWBAT define psychopharmacology, and explain how double-blind studies help researchers evaluate a drug’s effectiveness.

    31. THE BIOMEDICAL THERAPIES • biomedical therapy: prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient’s nervous system. • e.g. drugs, electroconvulsive shock, magnetic impulses to stimulate or dampen brain activity, psychosurgery, etc.

    32. THE BIOMEDICAL THERAPIES • biomedical therapy: prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient’s nervous system. • e.g. drugs, electroconvulsive shock, magnetic impulses to stimulate or dampen brain activity, psychosurgery, etc.

    33. Drug Therapies • psychopharmacology: the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.

    34. Antipsychotic Drugs • Antipsychotic drugs lower responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli, and they have been used effectively to treat schizophrenia accompanied by positive symptoms.

    35. Antipsychotic Drugs • First generation antipsychotics block D2 (dopamine) receptors. • tardive dyskinesia: involuntary movement of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target D2 dopamine receptors.

    36. Antipsychotic Drugs • Second generation antipsychotics target D1 receptors, and can affect metabolism, increasing the risk of obesity and diabetes.

    37. Antianxiety Drugs • Objective: SWBAT describe the characteristics of antianxiety drugs.

    38. Antianxiety Drugs • Antianxiety drugs depress central nervous system activity. • They are often used in combination with psychotherapy for treatment of anxiety disorders. • They can be both psychologically and physically addictive. • e.g. prozac or xanax

    39. Antidepressant Drugs • Objective: SWBAT describe the characteristics of antidepressant drugs, and discuss their use in treating specific disorders.

    40. Antidepressant Drugs • Antidepressant drugs increase the availability of norepinephrine or seratonin, which elevates arousal or mood. • Selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors (SSRIs) block the reuptake of seratonin. • Dual-action antidepressants block the reuptake or absorption of both norepinephrine and serotonin, but they have a greater risk of side effects.

    41. Antidepressant Drugs • Antidepressants may be used to treat depression, often with cognitive therapy. • They can also be used to treat anxiety disorders. • Their full psychological effects may not appear for several weeks.

    42. Mood-Stabilizing Medications • Objective: SWBAT describe the use and effects of mood-stabilizing medications.

    43. Mood-Stabilizing Medications • A few drugs, like lithium for bipolar disorder, have prove very effective in stabilizing moods. • However, researchers do not yet understand how these medications work. • Lithium can also be very dangerous is taken in the wrong dosage.

    44. BRAIN STIMULATION

    45. Electroconvulsive Therapy • Objective: SWBAT describe the use of electroconvulsive therapy in treating severe depression, and discuss some possible alternatives to ECT.

    46. Electroconvulsive Therapy • electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient. • ECT is an effective, last-resort treatment for many people with severe depression who have not responded to drug therapy.

    47. Electroconvulsive Therapy • Depression can also be treated by implanting a device that stimulates part of the brain. • It an also be relieved using transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), in which pulses of magnetic energy is sent through the skull to the surface of the cortex to stimulate or dampen activity in various brain areas.

    48. Psychosurgery • Objective: SWBAT summarize the history of the psychosurgical procedure known as a lobotomy, and discuss the use of psychosurgery today.

    49. Psychosurgery • psychosurgery: surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior. • lobotomy: a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. • The procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.

    50. Psychosurgery • It is irreversible, and they used to insert a medical instrument through a patient’s eye sockets to sever the connections in the brain. • It disappeared in the 1950s when its harmful effects (lethargy and an impulsive personality) became known, and new and effective drug treatments became available.