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October 1492 Returned to Spain in March gold, turkey, pineapple, tobacco but no spice PowerPoint Presentation
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October 1492 Returned to Spain in March gold, turkey, pineapple, tobacco but no spice

October 1492 Returned to Spain in March gold, turkey, pineapple, tobacco but no spice

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October 1492 Returned to Spain in March gold, turkey, pineapple, tobacco but no spice

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  1. October 1492 Returned to Spain in March gold, turkey, pineapple, tobacco but no spice

  2. Most important event

  3. Domesticated animals muscovy duck turkey guinea pig llamas alpacas No large herd domesticated animals

  4. corn kidney beans peanuts lima beans potatoes tobacco tomatoes squashes avocados quinoa pineapple cotton Peppers Cacao Vanilla Nutmeg

  5. Peppers Columbus 1495 Within 50 years spread world Portuguese to piri-piri to Africa from Brazil, around horn of Africa to India thrived, now thought native All species in Africa today

  6. Why so popular? Grow easily Many varieties Maintain heat when dried

  7. 3,000 varieties worldwide

  8. Peppers in nightshade family related to tomatoes, potatoes eggplant, tobacco datura, henbane

  9. Chile, chilli, chili Capsaicin indestructible cold, heat, water Vitamin A 9x more green pepper Vitamin C 2x more than oranges Potassium Magnesium Antioxidants

  10. Chili peppers Capsaicinoids reduce blood clots dissolves fibrin relieve arthritis (topical) lower cholesterol increase blood flow in vessels release endorphins

  11. Increase immune system decrease inflammation Decrease blood pressure Decrease stomach acid help ulcers Antimicrobial kills salmonella, H. pylori Antiviral stops transcription

  12. Pain killer release neurotransmitter (substance P) Arthritis 3months, 81% relief Nerve pain 50% improvement Shingles Diabetic neuropathy Headaches (nostril)

  13. Wilbur Scoville 1912 Now use liquid chromatography

  14. Pure capsaicin 16 million SHU Pepper spray 5 million SHU Varies soil more sunlight = hotter

  15. Carolina reaper 2.2 million SHUs Trinidad moruga scorpion 2 million SHUs Ghost pepper or naga 1 million SHUs

  16. Uses: flavor smeared on fences hand grenades pepper spray

  17. Red Savina 250,000 Scoville Habanero 100,000-350,000 SHU Cayenne 30,000-50,000 SHU

  18. Serrano 10,000-25,000 SHU

  19. Jalapeno 2,500-5,000 SHUs Tabasco, paprika 2,500-8,000 SHU

  20. Poblano 1,000-2,000 SHU rellenos

  21. Anaheim 500-2,500 SHUs Pimento, banana Pepperoncini 100-500 SHU

  22. Pimiento (cherry pepper) Indigenous to Jamaica Major pepper produced in Jamaica Today export $5 million, 1000 metric tons

  23. Used in cheese Sandwich meat Stuffed olives mixed with gelatin, large sheets machine stuffed 1962

  24. Sweet bell peppers 0

  25. Put out the fire! NO WATER Fat milk yogurt ice cream Peanut butter Alcohol beer

  26. Chili powder Actually a mixture of spices Aztecs used similar Developed in Texas 1835

  27. Vanilla 250 active ingredients Foods, perfumes, toothpaste Ice cream Florida, Australia, New Zealand 5.5 million ton of vanilla consumed/yr

  28. Most popular flavor in the world Only edible orchid

  29. Montezuma gifted to Spanish Aztecs gave to Quetzalcoatl at Tenochtitlan Gave Cortez chocolatl ground cacao annatto seeds chile pepper vanilla

  30. Why expensive??? Orchid pollinated by indigenous bees, hummingbirds Seed pods take 6-9 months to mature Hand pollinated if not native soil Dried, wrapped to prevent fermentation Cured in airtight metal boxes

  31. Vanilla planifolia Epiphyte

  32. Commercially grown on bamboo

  33. 200 phytonutrients Mainly vanillin cancer influences 64 genes with a role in cancer Sickle cell anemia

  34. Cacao Native to American tropics Small tree, rich soil, lots of water 4 years, harvest until 80 Flower forms on main trunk red pod full of beans fermented, dried Contains caffeine and theobromine

  35. Gift from the gods Originally bitter drink used for ceremonies or added to other dishes Nahuatl word xocolātl Aphrodisiacs 1900 BC

  36. Olmec Vera Cruz Mayan Aztec traded 100 beans worth a canoe 100 beans worth aturkey Pueblo traded with Mesoamerica

  37. Columbus found on 4th trip did not understand its importance Cortes first to drink 1519

  38. 1500s added sugar from West Indies Spread throughout Europe Dutchman Casparus van Houten learned to add milk found how to remove fat by hydraulic Press 1828and make a cake of the chocolate

  39. Dutched chocolate treated with alkaline lighter, sweeter neutral pH can not be used in recipes calling for baking soda Only baking powder

  40. Cadbury boxed chocolates 1868 Nestle milk chocolate 1875 Lindtconching (machine) 1879 Hershey choc. Covered carmels 1893

  41. 1831 Cadbury planned chocolate factory 1894 Milton Hershey, Penn. 1907 Hershey’s kisses 2008 3,000 products from chocolate