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Gods and Goddesses of Sumeria. Presentation by:. World Literature I. Ralph Monday. Sumerian Myth. The Sumerians developed one of the earliest civilizations on earth (3500-1750 B.C.E.) However, their lost civilization was not rediscovered until the 19 th century.

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Gods and goddesses of sumeria

Gods and Goddesses of Sumeria

Presentation by:

World Literature I

Ralph Monday


Sumerian myth
Sumerian Myth

  • The Sumerians developed one of the earliest civilizations on earth (3500-1750 B.C.E.)

  • However, their lost civilization was not rediscovered until the 19th century.


Gods and goddesses of sumeria

  • The world of the Babylonians was well known.

  • The ancient Egyptians, Hebrews, and Greeks had all had contact and written about this civilization.

  • No one knew that the Sumerians had come before the Babylonians,

  • And had adapted and modified their writing, religious, and agricultural systems.


Gods and goddesses of sumeria


The gods
The Gods

  • There are several ways to examine Sumerian mythology. The culture was:

  • Polytheistic

  • Anthropomorphic

  • Animist


Polytheism
Polytheism

  • The belief in or worship of many gods, or more than one god.

  • It is the direct opposite of monotheism, the major belief system of the

  • Judeo-Christian tradition.



Anthropomorphic
Anthropomorphic

  • The attributing of human shape or characteristics to gods, objects, animals, etc.

Anthropomorphic cabinet-Salvador Dali


Animism
Animism

  • 1. The belief that all life is produced by a spiritual force separate from matter.

  • 2. The belief that natural phenomena and objects such as rocks, trees, rivers, oceans, the wind, etc., are alive and have souls.


Gods and goddesses of sumeria

Mother of all things

  • Indeed, the ancients believed that the earth itself is alive.

  • Ki in the Sumerian. Gaia (earth mother) in the Greek.


Gods and goddesses of sumeria

There is a

Modern day

Biological

Theory

(Gaia hypothesis)

That examines

This ancient idea

From a present

Day scientific

Perspective.


Gilgamesh major gods and goddesses
Gilgamesh: Major Gods and Goddesses

  • Antum

  • Aya

  • Ea/Enki

  • Enlil

  • Lugulbanda

  • Ninsun

  • Samuqan

  • Shamash

  • Adad

  • Anunnaki

  • Anu

  • Aruru

  • Ishtar/Inanna

  • Ninurta

  • Nisaba


Gods and goddesses of sumeria


Gods and goddesses of sumeria
ADAD gods

  • In Sumerian mythology, Adad is a storm god, son of Anu. He holds a

  • Lightning bolt in his right hand and an axe in his left.

  • Partially responsible for the flood, he relates to the Canaanite god Hadad.


Gods and goddesses of sumeria
ADAD gods



Annunnaki
ANNUNNAKI gods

  • In Sumerian mythology the Annunnaki are the underworld gods.

  • Gilgamesh cries out lament over the death of Enkidu that these beings have fastened onto Enkidu

  • and seized him, taking him to the land of death.



The anunnaki
THE ANUNNAKI underworld.


Antum
ANTUM underworld.

  • Babylonian consort of Anu, the god of the sky.

  • In Sumerian mythology she is a colorless female being.

  • Antum and Anu produced the Anunnaki.

  • She was replaced by Ishtar who is sometimes her daughter.


Gods and goddesses of sumeria
ANU underworld.

  • In Sumerian and Babylonian mythology, Anu is the god of the sky.

  • He is also the creator god of the Sumerian pantheon.

  • He is the father of the gods.

  • He is the first and most powerful god.


Gods and goddesses of sumeria
ANU underworld.


Aruru
ARURU underworld.

  • Aruru is the creator goddess of Sumerian mythology.

  • She is the mother goddess of the earth and birth.

  • She is the one who first created humanity from clay.

  • She also created Enkidu.


Aruru1
ARURU underworld.



Aa aya
AA/AYA underworld.

  • In Babylonian mythology, Aa is the Great-Mother. She is the Mother of all things.

  • She is the Goddess of dawn and inspired the invention of letters.

  • Consort of Shamash, the sun god.



Ea enki
EA/ENKI underworld.

  • In Babylonian and Sumerian mythology, Ea/Enki was the god of wisdom, magic, and water.

  • He supplies clear drinking water to the town of Dilmun.


Gods and goddesses of sumeria


Gods and goddesses of sumeria


Ea enki god of water and magic
EA/ENKI God of Water and Magic world were paralled by hidden, cthonic seas located in vast chambers deep within the earth.


Enlil
ENLIL world were paralled by hidden, cthonic seas located in vast chambers deep within the earth.

  • In Sumerian mythology Enlil was the first born son of Ki (earth) and Anu (heaven). He is the god of the sky.

  • He separated the earth from the heavens.

  • He guards the tablets of destiny, power that allows him to determine the fate of all things animate or inanimate.


Enlil1
ENLIL world were paralled by hidden, cthonic seas located in vast chambers deep within the earth.


Ereshkigal
ERESHKIGAL world were paralled by hidden, cthonic seas located in vast chambers deep within the earth.

  • Ereshkigal is the Sumerian and Babylonian Queen of the Underworld.

  • She is a death goddess and sister of Ishtar. Together with her consort Nergal she rules the underworld.


No one returns from her domain
No one returns from her domain world were paralled by hidden, cthonic seas located in vast chambers deep within the earth.


This terra cotta figure thousands of years old is interpreted to be either ishtar or ereshkigal
This terra cotta figure, thousands of world were paralled by hidden, cthonic seas located in vast chambers deep within the earth.years old, is interpreted to be either Ishtar or Ereshkigal.


Lugulbanda
LUGULBANDA world were paralled by hidden, cthonic seas located in vast chambers deep within the earth.

  • A hero of two Sumerian poems, third on the post-diluvian King-List, and ruler of Uruk for 1200 years.

  • He is occasionally referred to by Gilgamesh as his semi-divine 'father'.

  • He is a demigod and the protector of Gilgamesh.


Ishtar inanna
ISHTAR/INANNA world were paralled by hidden, cthonic seas located in vast chambers deep within the earth.

  • The Sumerian goddess of love and sexuality who attempts to seduce Gilgamesh.

  • Knowing her history of sordid and failed love affairs, Gilgamesh refuses her advances causing much strife for himself and the people of Uruk.


Ishtar was personified as the legendary queen semiramis
Ishtar was personified as the legendary world were paralled by hidden, cthonic seas located in vast chambers deep within the earth.queen Semiramis.


Ninsun
NINSUN world were paralled by hidden, cthonic seas located in vast chambers deep within the earth.

  • The mother of Gilgamesh and priestess of the temple of Uruk.

  • She helps Gilgamesh interpret his dream about a falling star, and makes

  • Utu/Shamash protect Gilgamesh on his journey to the Cedar Mountains.


Ninurta
NINURTA world were paralled by hidden, cthonic seas located in vast chambers deep within the earth.

  • Ninurta is chamberlain of the Annunnaki.

  • The child of Enlil and Mami, he is also god of rain, fertility, war, thunderstorms, wells, canals, floods, the plough and the South Wind.

  • His name means "lord of the earth" and mankind owed to him the fertile fields and the healthy live-stock.


Ninurta 890 884 b c e
Ninurta world were paralled by hidden, cthonic seas located in vast chambers deep within the earth.(890-884 B.C.E.)


Samuqan
SAMUQAN world were paralled by hidden, cthonic seas located in vast chambers deep within the earth.

  • The Mesopotamian god of cattle.

  • He is connected to the earth, fertility, livestock.


Shamash
SHAMASH world were paralled by hidden, cthonic seas located in vast chambers deep within the earth.

  • The sun god, and since he could see everything on earth, he also represented the god of justice.


Worship of shamash
Worship of Shamash world were paralled by hidden, cthonic seas located in vast chambers deep within the earth.


Gods and goddesses of sumeria
SIN world were paralled by hidden, cthonic seas located in vast chambers deep within the earth.

  • The Sumerian moon god.

  • The Moon god had several different names that referred to different phases of the Moon. The name Sin indicated the crescent Moon, Nanna the full Moon, and Asimbabbar the beginning of each lunar cycle.


Gods and goddesses of sumeria
SIN world were paralled by hidden, cthonic seas located in vast chambers deep within the earth.