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Rail and Aviation The “Other White Meat” of Economic Development Infrastructure. Terry L. Clower, Ph.D. Director Center for Economic Development & Research University of North Texas. Purpose. Review economic development perspectives for non-roadway based transportation infrastructure

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rail and aviation the other white meat of economic development infrastructure

Rail and AviationThe “Other White Meat” of Economic Development Infrastructure

Terry L. Clower, Ph.D.

Director

Center for Economic Development & Research

University of North Texas

purpose
Purpose
  • Review economic development perspectives for non-roadway based transportation infrastructure
  • Define some terminology
  • What does it take to be competitive?
  • Describe economic development strategies based on these infrastructures.
  • May even talk about water transport, if we have time.
slide3
Rail
  • Two types to consider
    • Passenger
      • Long haul
      • Commuter
      • Transit
    • Freight
      • Intermodal
      • Bulk
passenger rail long haul
Passenger Rail – Long Haul
  • If you got it, great
  • If you ain’t got it, forgedda about it!
  • Outside of northeast corridor (DC to New York, with Philly tossed in), not a competitive advantage.
  • HSPR: Hype, hype and more hype
    • Expensive
    • Tough to route
    • What’s the advantage?
passenger rail commuter
Passenger Rail -- Commuter
  • Works great in high density corridors
    • Where existing trackage rights can be obtained.
  • Spreading to non-traditional markets
  • Share tracks with freight rail
  • Effectively extends the labor shed, in some cases greatly
  • Some businesses may want to be near stations
passenger rail transit
Passenger Rail -- Transit
  • Light rail
    • Extends effective labor shed – slightly
    • Increasingly is seen as a necessary amenity for being a world class city
    • Does not have a meaningful impact on traffic congestion
    • Pure economic justification (fare box revenue sufficiency) not really possible
    • Institutional employers (hospitals, universities, government, corporate offices) are a part of TOD, though causal order is mixed.
    • Main question: system designed for commuting or social engineering?
    • Cannot share with freight, can negatively impact industrial properties
freight rail intermodal
Freight Rail -- Intermodal
  • Some national long haul truckers move the majority of their shipments via TOFC (trailer on flat car, piggyback)
  • Increasingly, COFC (container on flat car) is displacing TOFC plus movement of ocean shipping containers. Single train can take 280+ trucks off the road.
freight rail intermodal1
Freight Rail -- Intermodal
  • Number, capacity and proximity to intermodal terminals are key stats.
  • Number of rail carriers
  • Network characteristics
  • To be highly competitive:
    • 2 or more railroads
    • Multiple terminals
    • Good roads supporting drayage operations
    • Efficient processing (minimal drayage delays)
    • World class is to have an “inland port”
freight rail other
Freight Rail -- other
  • Railroad classifications
    • Class I: revenue greater than ≈ $300 million
      • BNSF, UP, CSX, NS, KCS, CN, CP
    • Class II: $25 mil to $300 mil
      • Florida East Coast, Wisconsin & Southern, Central Oregon & Pacific, Iowa Interstate
    • Class III: <$25 mil
      • Includes terminal railroads
      • Mississippi Southern, Kyle, Arcade & Attica, TNM
freight rail other1
Freight Rail -other
  • Key features for business attraction
    • Multiple railroads serving region
      • Captive shipper problem
    • Open to reciprocal switching
    • Shipping performance (delays)
    • Availability of equipment
    • Note on line abandonment
    • Ability to generate unit train quantities
aviation
Aviation
  • Commercial
    • Scheduled passenger service, at least 2,500 boardings/year
    • Number of carriers
    • Daily flights
    • Number of destinations with direct service
    • Type of equipment (jets good, RJs okay, turboprop not okay)
    • Air freight
aviation1
Aviation
  • FAA designations
    • Primary: >10,000 boardings
      • Large hub: ≥1% of all national boardings
      • Medium hub: 0.25% ≤ boardings < 1%
      • Small hub: 0.05% ≤ boardings < 0.25%
      • Non hub: 10,000 < boardings < 0.05%
    • Non-Primary: 2,500 ≤ boardings ≤ 10,000
    • Reliever: can relieve congestion (public or private)
    • Cargo service: >100 million pounds landed in cargo only aircraft
    • General Aviation
general aviation
General Aviation
  • Key characteristics for economic development
    • Runway length/width
    • Visual or Instrument
    • Tower
    • Services: Multiple FBOs (fixed based operators) available, repair, fuel prices
    • Hanger space and rental rates
    • Property tax structure
    • Customers/immigration clearance on-site
    • Medical air evacuation
general aviation1
General Aviation
  • Clower’s taxonomy of economic development for GA airports:
    • Business support
      • corporate flight ops
      • remote business support
      • Aviation equipment (supplies, testing, refurbishment)
    • Government (CBP, other)
    • Ag support
    • Tourism (including vacation homes)
    • Trade support (FTZ, CBP office)
    • Land plays
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Know service characteristics of rail and aviation infrastructure in your community
  • Monitor service performance
  • In smaller communities pay close attention to rail abandonment.
  • In mid-size communities watch for commercial air service equipment downgrades
  • Aviation capital improvement programs are good deals for communities
  • Work with carriers to promote your community