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Mineral or not? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Mineral or not?. Which of these is a mineral? Why or why not?. Gene Simmons. Princess Penny. Garnet. Rose Quartz. Eggs are to cake…. Eggs are to cake… What minerals are to rocks. 3 Main Rock Groups. Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic. Igneous Rocks. Igneous Rocks.

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mineral or not
Mineral or not?
  • Which of these is a mineral? Why or why not?

Gene Simmons

Princess Penny

Garnet

Rose Quartz

eggs are to cake
Eggs are to cake…
  • Eggs are to cake…
  • What minerals are to rocks.
3 main rock groups
3 Main Rock Groups
  • Igneous
  • Sedimentary
  • Metamorphic
igneous rocks1
Igneous Rocks
  • Igneous comes from the Greek word for Fire.
  • Igneous rocks are formed when hot molten rock crystallizes and solidifies.
igneous rocks2
Igneous Rocks
  • Forms from molten material
    • magma
magma is molten rock
Magma is molten rock

What is magma?

magma is molten rock1
Magma is molten rock
  • What is magma?
  • Mostly oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium, titanium, and manganese.
    • As well as melted rock, crystals, bits of unmelted parent rock and dissolved gases.
igneous rocks3
Igneous Rocks
  • If magma cools quickly:
    • There is less time for crystals to form
      • Crystals will be small
igneous rocks4
Igneous Rocks
  • If magma cools slowly:
    • There is more time for crystals to grow
      • Crystals will be larger
2 types of igneous r ocks
2 Types of Igneous Rocks
  • Based on where they form:
    • Intrusive / Plutonic
      • Magma that cools and hardens below the surface.
    • Extrusive
      • Magma that cools and hardens above the surface (lava).
intrusive igneous rocks
Intrusive Igneous Rocks
  • Intrusive or Plutonic rocks form when molten rock, or magma, is trapped deep within the earth where it slowly cools and solidifies.
  • The cooling may take thousands or even millions of years.
  • Since it takes so long to cool, the crystals within the rock may grow relatively large.
  • Slow cooling, and large crystals create a coarse grained texture.
    • Ex: granite, gabbro, diorite
igneous rocks5
Igneous Rocks
  • Intrusive or Plutonic
    • Batholith- large igneous intrusion
      • Sills – an igneous intrusion parallel to the layers
      • Lacolith– an igneous intrusion into sedimentary layers
extrusive igneous rocks
Extrusive Igneous Rocks
  • Extrusive rocks are formed by magma that exits the earth(lava).
    • Ex: From volcanoes, and fissures.
  • As magma erupts from the earth it cools very rapidly. There is little time to form large crystals.
    • Extrusive rocks are fine grained or even glassy texture.
      • Ex: basalt, rhyolite, obsidian.
igneous rock groups
Igneous Rock groups
  • 2 main groups based on their chemical composition;
  • Mafic
  • Felsic
mafic
Mafic
  • Mafic magmas have relatively low silica (Si) and high Fe and Mg contents.
    • The high Fe and Mg content makes these rocks heavier & darker than felsic types.
      • Mafic magma will cool and crystallize to produce the volcanic rock basalt and gabbro.
mafic1
Mafic
  • Very Hot lava, rich in iron and magnesium, low in silica, is fluid and flows like hot tar (highly viscous).
    • Mafic Magnesium + Iron
      • Mg + Fe
mafic rocks
Mafic rocks
  • Magnesium + Iron (Fe)
  • More easily weathered than felsic-types
  • Highly dense/heavy
  • Dark colored
    • Ex: basalt, gabbro
felsic
Felsic
  • Felsic magmas, have relatively high silica and low Fe and Mg contents.
    • Lighter in weight and color than mafic.
    • Felsic magma will cool and crystallize to produce dacite and rhyolite.
      • Intermediate-composition magmas will crystallize to produce the rock andesite.
felsic1
Felsic
  • Cooler, gas-poor lava high in silicon, sodium, and potassium can be either pasty, blocky or flows very slowly (not viscous).
    • Felsic Feldspar + Silicon
      • Fe + Si
felsic rocks
Felsic Rocks
  • Feldspar + Si
    • Harder
    • Weather last
    • Low density
    • Lighter color
    • Ex: quartz, muscovite, orthoclase
igneous rocks7
Igneous Rocks
  • If lava is felsic and contains a high percentage of gases it will be explosive.
    • If thick the lava will explode in blocks or bombs.
igneous rocks8
Igneous Rocks
  • If lavas are thin and contain few gases, the flow will be very viscous.
    • Smooth, liquidy
slide33

What types of igneous rocks would be formed here?

http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/gallery/kilauea/volcanomovies/