Synovial Fluid. I. Physiology & Composition Movable joints (diarthroses) composed of: Bones lined with articular cartilage Separated by a cavity containing synovial fluid enclosed in a synovial membrane Synovial membrane synoviocytes: Phagocytic – synthesizes degradative enzymes
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Synovial Fluid – Normal Values
Volume <3.5 mL
Color pale yellow
Viscosity forms string 4-6 cm long
Erythrocytes <2000 cells/uL
Leukocytes <200 cells/uL
Neutrophils <20% of diff.
Lymphocytes <15 % of diff.
Monocytes & macrophages 65% of diff.
Glucose <10 mg/dL (lower than blood glucose)
Lactate <250 mg/dL
Total protein <3 g/dL
Uric acid = blood value
*Avoid all powdered anticoagulants – interfere with crystal analysis
(* values vary between texts)
blue when perpendicular
Group Classification Significance
* categories overlap
* multiple conditions can occur simultaneously
* disease stage can vary laboratory results
*see text for details of associated abnormal laboratory findings