Lesson One – Objectives Fundamentals of First Aid Define the meaning of First Aid. Explain how to use the 911 system. Explain the first concern when giving first aid. Explain when to move and when not to move an injured person. List the four steps of victim assessment. What is Triage?
Fundamentals of First Aid 1. What is the purpose of first aid: • First Aid is care given to an injured person to stabilize and keep him / her safe until he / she can receive professional medical attention.
Fundamentals of First Aid Scenario: A man has been hit by a car and thrown into the street. He is wearing shorts, and blood is flowing, but not spurting, from his leg. What looks like a bone is sticking out of his leg. What are the two major concerns when giving first aid to this victim?
Fundamentals of First Aid Answer: First, safety of the rescuer from traffic and the safety of the of the victim. Second, unless the victim is in a life-threatening situation, he should not be moved.
Fundamentals of First Aid 2. List the Two Major Concerns When Giving First Aid: • The first rule of first aid and the primary concern is: • The second concern is, unless the victim is in a life-threatening situation, he or she should: Safety Not Be Moved
Giving First Aid RAP ABCH R is forResponsiveness Is the victim conscious? Touch their shoulder, ask if they are alright. Ask if they need help. If they say no, then proceed no further If yes, or no response, then proceed to A
Giving First Aid RAP ABCH A is for Activate EMS or 911
How to Use the 911 System 4. What are the four things you need to remember when making a 911 call? • Your name • The emergency • The location of the emergency • Condition of the victim Stay on the line with the operator until help arrives.
How To Use the 911 System When should EMS / 911 be called? • Check the victim for responsiveness. If they do not respond or if they tell you that they need help, then contact EMS.
When To Move An Injured Person P is for Position Only re-position the victim if the victim is in further danger in their present location. And / or there does not seem to be spinal injury and additional care requires moving them.
Explain when an injured person should and should not be moved? • If there are suspected spinal injuries, do not move the victim (except when the victim is in a life threatening situation). Seek immediate medical attention.
Four Steps ofVictim Assessment Use the mnemonic“ABCH” • A is for airway -check to see if the airway is blocked. Use your finger to sweep the mouth to remove any seen object. If this fails, then perform the Heimlich maneuver or abdominal thrusts. We will learn these techniques in later lessons.
Four Steps ofVictim Assessment • B is for breathing Look, listen and feelby watching the chest and placing your cheek a few inches above the mouth of the victim to sense any movement of air. If the victim is not breathing, they may need their head repositioned. If they are still not breathing they need rescue breathing, do not give unless you are trained, instead, find an adult.
Four Steps ofVictim Assessment • C is for circulation If there is not a pulse, then this person needs CPR. The best place to check for a pulse is the carotid artery along the side of the neck along the windpipe. If you are not trained in CPR, then find someone who is.
Four Steps ofVictim Assessment • H is for Hemorrhaging If the victim is bleeding, then provide the necessary care. If not, then begin a secondary assessment.
What is Triage? Process of prioritizing patients based on the severity of their condition so as to treat as many as possible when resources are insufficient for all to be treated immediately.
Lesson One Review First aid is a first-response activity, nothing more. It’s sole goal is to maintain the injured person until they get professional help. First priority – Safety for all! Blood from a cut or torn vein will flow, a cut artery will spurt.
Lesson One True-False Questions T F 1. Checking the victim, calling for help, and giving care are three steps in treating someone who has been seriously hurt or ill. T F 2. It is ok to move someone who is seriously hurt to make them feel better. T F 3. Knowing first aid could save a life, and applying first aid should be accompanied with prayer.
Lesson One True-False Questions T F 4. The groove to the side of the neck (carotid artery) is a good place to check the pulse. T F 5. Calling for help may be the most important thing that you do to help the victim. T F 6. First aid is the temporary care that you give until professional help arrives.
Lesson Two – Objectives Choking, AED, Shock and Weather Related Ailments • Review Victim Assessment from lesson 1. • Explain and Demonstrate the Heimlich maneuver and abdominal thrusts. • What is an AED and what is it used for? • Explain the treatment for shock and hot and cold weather related injuries or ailments.
RAP ABCH Review • Safety is the primary concern. • R = Responsiveness (Is the victim conscious?) • A = Activate EMS or 911 • P = Position (no spinal injury, position according to injury) • A = Airway (is it blocked? Check head position)
RAP ABCH Review • B = Breathing (is the victim breathing? Check!) • C = Circulation (Is there a pulse? Check!) • H = Hemorrhaging (Is the victim bleeding?) • Perform secondary survey. Examine the victim for other injuries and wait for medical attention to arrive.
Heimlich Maneuver • Used only when the victim is conscious and is unable to breath or cough. • Victim coughing, encourage to continue. • If the victim goes unconscious, use Abdominal Thrusts
Heimlich Maneuver • Stand behind victim. • Wrap arms around victim’s waist and not around the ribs. • Make a fist and place the thumb side of your fist just slightly above the navel. • Grab your fist with your other hand.
Heimlich Maneuver • Press into the victim’s stomach with five quick upward thrusts. Each thrust should have a pause in between. • After every five thrusts, recheck the victim. Repeat until the object has been dislodged of until the victim loses consciousness. Time To Practice!
Abdominal Thrusts • Place victim on his or her back. • Straddle the victim by sitting on their thighs. • Place the heel of one hand just slightly above their navel. Your fingers should be angled slightly upward, pointed toward the victim’s head.
Abdominal Thrusts • Grasp your hand by placing your other hand on top and lacing your fingers into the first hand. • Press inward and upward with five quick thrusts. Each thrust should have a pause in between.
Abdominal Thrusts • After every five thrusts, recheck the victim. Repeat until the object has been dislodged or until you are relieved by another person or an EMT. • Perform finger sweep after each set of five thrusts. Time To Practice!
What is an AED and what is it used for? A portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient,and is able to treat them through defibrillation, the application of electrical therapy which stops the arrhythmia, allowing the heart to reestablish an effective rhythm. AEDs are designed to be simple to use for the layman, and the use of AEDs is taught in many first aid, first responder and basic life support (BLS) level CPR classes.
Shock - Treatment • Preserve body heat by placing a blanket or cover over the victim. Provide insulation, or move the victim, if possible, to a warmer environment.
Shock - Treatment Allergic Reaction First Question: Is shock the result of an allergic reaction? If the shock is the result of an allergic reaction, then follow victim's instructions for treating allergy and monitor the "ABCH’s" until medical attention arrives.
Shock - Treatment • Spinal injury – do not move the victim. • If result of a head injury or if victim has difficulty breathing, elevate head and shoulders by placing a pillow or blanket under head. • If the victim is unconscious or vomiting, then turn the victim on their left side so the stomach is on the left side of the body.
Shock - Treatment • If no, elevate legs eight to twelve inches off the ground. • If less then two hours from medical care, then do not give fluids (except to those who are conscious and are severely burned). • If no, give small and periodic amounts of water (only if conscious). • Wait for medical attention to arrive.
Weather Related Emergencies • Weather related emergencies include: • Hyperthermia: Heat related, body unable to cool itself • Heat Exhaustion: Skin cold & clammy, person alert • Heatstroke: Skin hot, altered state of awareness • Hypothermia: Cold related, body unable to warm itself • Frostbite: Freezing of the extremities (fingers & toes) • Frostnip: First stage of freezing outer layers of skin
Weather Related Emergencies Treatment for Hyperthermia “The body is unable to itself.” COOL • Move person into a cool place; remove any excess clothing; cool victim with either water, fanning, or cool packs under the armpits or groin; wait for medical attention, in the case of heatstroke.
Weather Related Emergencies Treatment for Hypothermia “The core body temperature drops below degrees.” Ninety-five
Weather Related Emergencies Treatment for Hypothermia • Move the victim out of the cold; handle the victim carefully; replace wet clothes with dry clothes. • You may need to be forceful verbally to get the individual to comply; • Insulate from the cold with layered clothing and/or an insulated sleeping bag.
Lesson 2 Review Questions True-False Questions T F 7. Hyperthermia occurs when the body loses the ability to cool itself and overheats. T F 8. When you have frostbite, rub the hands together slowly to warm them up. T F 9. Hypothermia occurs when the body loses its ability to keep itself warm. T F 10. Shock may occur with any injury, illness, or trauma.
Lesson 2 Review Questions True-False Questions T F 11. Itching eyes is a sign of hypothermia. T F 12. Clammy skin is a sign of heat exhaustion. 13. Describe the treatment needed for the following scenario: You have come to an accident scene, and the victim is sitting on the curb. He or she seems a little upset, is shivering, and there is some discoloration of the skin. How do you treat this person? Check “RAP ABCH”. Cover with blanket. Ask if it is an allergic reaction. Seek medical attention.
Lesson Three – Objectives • Explain and demonstrate first aid for a cut. • Explain how to treat a blister. • Explain and demonstrate first aid for a puncture wound. • Explain and demonstrate first aid for arterial bleeding of an arm or leg. • Explain and demonstrate how to stop bleeding. • Dangers of a tourniquet.
Blister Treatment • Remove the object or clothing that is causing the blister. • Wash with warm water and soap. • Use a sterile needle to pop the blister at its base and drain. • Place a donut-shaped piece of mole foam around it to keep it from further irritation.
Blister Treatment • Treating a Blister • Remove footwear then • The best place to pop the blister is • tear off the roof of the blister. • The best way to prevent blisters is to wear fitted footwear. wash the blister with warm water and soap. at the base. Do not properly
Puncture Wound Treatment • Larger wounds - never remove barriers (may cause wound to bleed again). • Wash gently with outward strokes to move dirt and bacteria away from wound. • Use a stream of water to flush it out. Dry carefully, apply antibacterial ointment (for small wounds) and sterile bandage.